Name the main signs of the primitive bureau

Vote, if not it then xs

1. The first crusade. Years from 1096-1099. Participants: peasants, poor and feudalists. Objectives: the call of the liberation of the "Holy Land" and the coffin of the Lord from the "incorrect" Seljuk Turks dad Urban 2. Results: Many died from hunger or drowned. It was possible to capture the Earth along the sea coast of Syria and Palestine (the Jerusalem Kingdom. 2. The third crusade. The years from 1189-1192. Participants: Feudals. Headed: Friedrich 1 Barbarossa, Philip 2 August and Richard 1 Lion Heart. Objectives: Return of Jerusalem from Muslims . Results: Taking the port of acres (the capital of the Jerusalem Kingdom). But it was not possible to win the city. 3. Fourth crusade. 1204 year. Participants: Crusaders. He headed Dad Innokenti 3. Objectives: Capture of Constantinople and the plundering of the city. Results: Creation of the Latin Empire with the capital in Constantinople. All)

Cyrus was the leader, some of the tribes and combined other Persian tribes under him. He destroyed the mussel troops, and later, this territory entered into part of his state. He was, he could think that he created an army that was afraid due to his improvements and tactics, for example, the Wheel chariot.

New Economic Policy

On March 14, 1921, the X Congress of the RCP (b), replacing the policy of "military communism", carried out during the civil war, which led Russia to economic decline [1]. The new economic policy was aimed at introducing private entrepreneurship and the revival of market relations, with the restoration of the national economy. NEP was a measure of forced and largely improvisation. However, in seven years of its existence, it became one of the most successful economic projects of the Soviet period [2]. The main content of the NEP is the replacement of the priority to the extension in the village (with the priority, up to 70% of the grain, with a product - about 30%), the use of the market and various forms of ownership, attracting foreign capital in the form of concessions, carrying out monetary reform (1922-1924), in The result of which the ruble became a convertible currency.

Before the Soviet state stood the problems of financial stabilization, which means that the suppression of inflation and the achievement of a balanced state budget. The state strategy aimed at survival in the conditions of the credit blockade identified the USSR championship in drafting the production balances and distribution of products. The new economic policy assumed the state regulation of a mixed economy using planned and market mechanisms. NEPA was based on the ideas of the works of V. I. Lenin, discussions on the theory of reproduction and money, pricing principles, finance and loan.

The NEP made it possible to quickly restore the national economy destroyed by the First World and Civil Wars.

Decree of the Central Executive Committee of March 21, 1921, adopted on the basis of decisions of the X Congress of the RCP (b), the product was canceled and replaced by natural extended [3], which was about twice the lower. Such a significant relaxation gave a certain stimulus to develop the production of the peasant to be tired of the war.

During the antiquity of the warriors always brought a victim to the gods, as before the start of the campaign and after him. In fact, this tradition was stored for many centuries. It was believed that if not to make sacrifices, it can pour out the gods. Therefore, all the warriors tried to draw the gods and the more victim was, the more the probability of success

Project. Neolithic revolution. GDZ to the textbook on the history of Russia. Arsentev. Grade 1 part

Neolithic revolution. First cattlemen, farmers, artisans. Material for independent work and project activities

Questions in the text

1. Why is the transition to a manufacturing farm considered the most important event in the history of mankind?

The transition to a producing economy is considered an important event in the history of mankind because he radically changed the lives of people. This transition influenced not only on the form of management, but also on the development of instruments of labor, and on the device of society. He led to the disintegration of the primitive-communal system, the emergence and association of neighboring communities, and later - to the formation of ethnic groups.

2. In what area of ​​the Earth first appeared agriculture and cattle breeding?

According to modern data, the farming first appeared in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, and cattle breeding - in Asia (India and Indochite).

3. Why are the transition to a manufacturing farm called the revolution? What do they want to emphasize using this word?

In the word "revolution" want to emphasize the importance of the transition from assigning farms to the producing.

Questions to paragraph

1. What changes in the life of people occurred with the transition to a producing farm?

  1. Agriculture is born. People collect, plant and grow seeds of wild plants.
  2. Special tools appear for earth processing.
  3. Taming wild animals. Breeding animals. Bottle breeding.
  4. People are gradually moving from assigning the products necessary for the life.
  5. There are surplus products.

2. Name the main signs of the primitive-communal system.

  1. Primitive tools of labor.
  2. Collective work.
  3. Community property.
  4. An equalization distribution of labor products.
  5. The dependence of a person by nature.

3. List the phenomena that testified to the beginning of the decay of the primitive-communal system.

  1. From the members of the labor community, those who manages communities - elders and leaders are allocated. Elders lead joint work, control the exchange of products, follow the observance of the established orders and traditions. The leaders organize protection against enemies and lead military hiking.
  2. Social inequality. With the advent of surplus and the development of stock exchange accumulate in the hands of elders and leaders and are inherited.
  3. There is an exploitation of someone else's labor. Captive and slaves work instead of their owners, rich people.
  4. Neighborhood communities are formed, in which several births live on one territory.
  5. Communities are united under the rule of the Supreme Chief.
  6. Ethnic groups (nation) begin to form.

4. How did the use of iron workers affect the appearance of surplus products affected? Why were these surplus, when people used stone guns?

With the help of iron tools, people can effectively handle land or hunt. People began to produce much more products than required for their own consumption. There were surplus. The use of stone weapons was ineffective. With their help, people produced less products, so there was no surplus.

We work with the card

Determine the map, as the resettlement of people in the modern territory of our country occurred, find the centers of ancient farming, cattle breeding, crafts.

Consider the maps located on page 2 and 3 in the Atlas on the history of Russia.

Textbook on the history of Russia. Arsentev. Grade 1 part. Neolithic revolution

The big map shows that:

  • People began to settle in our country more than 12 thousand years ago (in the Pleistocene era - green arrows). They came from the territory of modern Europe, Central Asia and China;
  • In the IV-II millennium BC, Maikop archaeological culture existed in the steppes and the foothills of the North Caucasus (purple contour);
  • Also, at about the same time (3200-2400 BC), a little north of the Maykop culture were the foci of ancient culture (blue contour), the territory of which covered the steppe plains from the Dniester River to the Southern Bloods of the Ural Mountains;
  • In the III-II millennium BC in the territory of the Altai Territory there was an Afanasyevsky archaeological culture (pink circuit);
  • And at the same time (III-II century BC) there is a dawn of the hair archaeological culture, which occupied the territory of Central Russia and the Middle Volga region (orange contour).

Textbook on the history of Russia. Arsentev. Grade 1 part. Neolithic revolution

Looking at a small map we see that:

  • In the territory of Crimea and the Krasnoyarsk Territory, developed cultures were already in the 6th century before our era, that is, even earlier than in other Russian regions.

Conclusion: the resettlement of people occurred gradually from the southern territories to more northern, and the cultural foci appeared in the following order:

  1. Ancient Roman colonies (VI century BC);
  2. Bosporian kingdom (VI century BC);
  3. Maykop archaeological culture (IV century BC);
  4. Ancient culture (IV century BC);
  5. Afanasyevsky archaeological culture (III-II century BC);
  6. Volosovskaya archaeological culture (III-II century BC).

The centers of ancient farming were in the Crimea and in the Krasnodar Territory, craft centers - in the southern Urals, and cattle breeding centers covered the entire middle lane of Russia and the southern regions of Siberia.

We think, compare, reflect

1. Make sure how and why the organization of the life of ancient people changed. What are the reasons for the appearance of a neighbor community and what is its difference from the generic?

With the start of processing of metals, more advanced tools have appeared. The life of people has become easier. They could more effectively treat land or hunt, which led to the appearance of surplus products. Taming animals marked the beginning of cattle breeding. Exchange of excess products between tribes has become possible. Depending on the climatic features of the territory, the separation of tribes on agricultural and cattle breeding began. The tribes that were engaged in agriculture began to lead a settling lifestyle, and the cattle breeding tribes mastered steppe spaces.

Improving labor tools allowed individual families to keep the economy on their own. Generic bonds weakened. Separate families left the tribesmen and settled in other communities. There were territorial (neighbor) communities. In such communities, no blood relations united, but accommodation in one territory.

From the community began to stand out leaders and elders who managed the life of the community. The exchange of products that the elders controlled led to the accumulation of wealth. The appearance of savings was the cause of collisions between tribes. The enemies took captive became slaves. There were people with wealth and slave owners. Operation was born - assigning someone else's results.

Gradually, the communities were united under the rule of the supreme leader. Unions of tribes and their rulers appeared. They began to establish the rules and followed their observance. All this led to the gradual decay of the primitive-communal system and the emergence of a new form of organization of life - the state. People began to form, ethnic groups.

2. The history of mankind archaeologists divide on the stone, bronze and iron age. Using the Internet, find out when this division appeared, what features are based on it. Create a scheme illustrating your explanation.

The separation of the prehistoric period on the stone, bronze and iron century was put forward by the Danish archaeologist Tomsen in 1816-1819 on the basis of the study of archaeological finds. Tomsen argued that these three centuries should replace each other, because the stone would not be used to make the guns if people had a bronze, which, in turn, had to give the place of the gland. This theory is confirmed by archaeological excavations. The name of the centuries are characterized by the leading role of the products found from a certain material. Therefore, sometimes before the bronze age, they put a copper age, because copper is an integral part of bronze.

Homework

1. Prepare a message about the reasons for the appearance of a neighbor community

Improving labor tools allowed individual families to keep the economy on their own. Generic bonds weakened. Separate families left the tribesmen and settled in other communities. There were territorial (neighbor) communities. In such communities, no blood relations united, but accommodation in one territory.

2. Find out what principles underlie the division of history on the stone, bronze and iron age. Present your answer in schematic form

The separation of the prehistoric period on the stone, bronze and iron century was put forward by the Danish archaeologist Tomsen in 1816-1819 on the basis of the study of archaeological finds. Tomsen argued that these three centuries should replace each other, because the stone would not be used to make the guns if people had a bronze, which, in turn, had to give the place of the gland. This theory is confirmed by archaeological excavations. The name of the centuries are characterized by the leading role of the products found from a certain material. Therefore, sometimes before the bronze age, they put a copper age, because copper is an integral part of bronze.

Need to know

State - organization of life in which there is a single system of managing people living on one territory; The relationship between them is regulated on the basis of uniform laws (traditions), land protection is carried out; Regulated in one way or another relationship with other states and peoples.

People (nationality) - A large group of people who have developed on one territory, speaking in the same language and possessing a common culture.

Neolithic revolution - This is a transition of a person from assigning to the manufacturing farm during the neolithic period.

Neighboring community - This is a community in which people unites not blood relationship, but a joint accommodation on a certain territory.

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