The reader of the Colonel Engineer P. T. "What is Bionics" knows about the new branch of cybernetics - Bionics, engaged in the study of objects, processes and water phenomena, whose knowledge can be used in the latest technique. Among the industries, it is said in a brochure, where the data obtained can be applied, radar, communication, infrared equipment, electronic computing machines have the greatest importance. The author convincingly proves that bionics conclusions are able to play an important role in the development of military equipment - detection, communications, management, automation equipment.
The brochure is designed for the mass reader.
Cybernetics is becoming increasingly popular - the branch of science born in the first years after World War II. It is engaged in mathematical research of management and communication processes in living organisms and automatic devices. This scientific direction arose at the junction of accurate, technical and biological sciences, mathematics, physics, engineers, biologists, doctors, linguists participated in its creation and development. Since cybernetics for the study of the management and structure of control systems of the most different nature resorts to the help of mathematical methods, it could develop only on the basis of the entire scurried in the field of probability theory, differential equations, mathematical logic, information theory.
The first labor in which an attempt was made to systematize the foundations of cybernetics was the book of American mathematics N. Wiener "Cybernetics, or management and communication in the animal and machine" (1948). American scientists K. Shannon, A. Rosenblut and others participated in the development of the main ideas set forth in this book.
The development of mathematical disciplines, which play a large role in cybernetic studies, have made a significant contribution to the wonderful Russian scientists A. A. Markov, A. N. Kolmogorov, N. N. Bogolyubov. Even before the final formation of cybernetics as science B. A. Kotelnikov carried out deep studies of the general theory of communication, A. Ya. Hinchin gave strict mathematical interpretation of the theory of information.
What is new in the principle of issues of issues carries cybernetics? It considers the management tasks in general, without entering the details of a particular device of individual mechanisms, nodes, etc. The same thing in theory of communication. Questions are solved by cybernetics without clarification, to what types of communication they include - to telegraph, radio, telephone or any other. As a result of such a formulation, the possibility of under a certain angle of view appears to consider general in the processes of management and communications in machines and organisms, to conduct analogies between computing equipment and the human brain.
We all know such technical machines as the locomotive speed regulator, machine tools, automatic telephone exchanges, power grid control machines, nuclear reaction control machines, automatic meteorological stations, autopilots. Actions of the automaton can be programmed, such as the operation of the machine machine. But there are automata capable of performingA variety of tasks depending on external conditions
. These include autopilots installed on modern aircraft, and auto-power, intended for the automatic retention of the ship at the direct course.
Let us explain the principle of action of such automata on the example of the auto-author (Fig. 1). Under the influence of many disturbing factors (waves, wind), the ship may deviate from the specified course. The sensitive element is the gyrocompas - assesses the magnitude and direction of deviation from the course and on its sensor produces a signal proportional to this deviation. This signal through intermediate links enters special devices that produce commands in the form of electrical voltage, managing the operation of the actuator. Under the action of the applied voltage, the engine comes into motion and through the mechanical transmission produces a steering steering wheel to the side opposite to change the course. After several steering wheelchairs, the ship comes out to the specified course and all control elements of the auto-power occupy the starting position.Fig. one. Scheme of auto-ruble ship
We have stopped in detail on the action of auto-author because it is clearly visible in character and features of the so-called feedback systems that attract and cybernetics.Concept of feedback
It is considered common to technology and biology. The feedback principle is used, for example, in a system that controls the equilibrium of a person. The determining role of inverse links in the construction and regulation of movements of living organisms was established at the end of the twenties Soviet scientists.
In fig. 2 shows the structural diagram of the feedback device. Its action is easy to clarify on the same example with the auto-item. In the diagram A (T) -dated course, b (t) -really withstanding direction. The feedback channel to the comparing element with the signal from the output is supplied, and, if b (t) differs from the specified direction, the mismatch signal is produced equal to A (T) -B (T), which is enhanced in the amplifier. It affects it to reduce the mismatch to zero. When the mismatch in the absence of external influences tends to zero, the feedback is called negative.Fig. 2. Structural diagram of feedback device
Such feedback is important not only for the implementation of various movements of the living organism, but also for the implementation of physiological processes in it, to continue his life itself. True, these feedbacks act slowly than the feedback of movements and poses.
It is known as the tight framework of the existence of the highest animal from the point of view of temperature, metabolism, etc. The change in the body temperature by half grades is considered a sign of the disease, and the change in the temperature of five degrees poses the life of the body.
Very stringent requirements for osmotic blood pressure and concentration in it hydrogen ions. The body should have a certain number of leukocytes to protect against infection, the calcium exchange should be so that the bones do not soften and the tissues are not calcined.
Many other examples that show that there is a huge number of thermostats, automatic regulators and other feedback devices in the human body.
They would be enough for a large chemical enterprise.
Comparing the management systems in the living organism and the car, scientists were forced to be more closely "peering" in the essence of those kind of "devices", with which animals and plants perceive, analyze, transmit information. Data on the device of such "devices" may be extremely important for the development of many new branches - communications, locations, automation, infrared equipment, etc. As a result, a new direction of science occurred, engaged in the study of biological processes and devices of living organisms in order to obtain New features for solving engineering and technical tasks. This new branch of science has become called Bionics. Its name comes from the Greek Word Bion, which means an element of life (that is, the element of the biological system).
Many specialists consider bionics with a new branch of cybernetics. In accordance with this, they define it as science, exploring the paths and methods of electronic modeling of natural systems of obtaining, processing, storing and transmitting information in living organisms.
With a broader approach, three directions of bionics are distinguished - biological, technical and theoretical.Biological Bionics
It is engaged in the study of living organisms to clarify the principles underlying phenomena and processes in them.Technical Bionics
puts his task to recreation, modeling processes in nature and building on the basis of this fundamentally new technical systems and improvement of old.Theoretical Bionics
Develops mathematical models of natural processes. Bionics use data from biology, physiology, anatomy, biophysics, neurology, neurophysiology, psychology, psychiatry, epidemiology, biochemistry, chemistry, mathematics, communications, aviation and marine equipment, etc. The closest Bionics is currently being associated with such technical disciplines. like electronics, aviation business, shipbuilding.
How wide there can be a range of issues in which people have something to learn from nature, show on such examples. The interest of experts caused the dolphin's ability to move in water without much effort at the speed maximum for such bulky bodies. It was observed that only a minor inkjet (laminar) movement occurs around the moving dolphin, not passing into the vortex (turbulent) movement. While the flooded submarine similar to the dolphin form, there is a high turbulence. To overcome resistance only from this factor is spent before9
its driving force.
Studies made it possible to establish that the secret of the "anti-trailence" dolphin is hidden in its skin. It consists of two layers - an external, extremely elastic, 1.5 mm thickness, and an internal, dense, 4 mm thick. On the inside of the outer layer of the skin there is a huge number of moves and tubes filled with soft spongy. As a result, all the outer cover of the dolphin acts as a diaphragm sensitive to changes in external pressure and quenching the occurrence of a jet by transmitting pressure to the channel filled with the shock absorbing substance.
In the US, this phenomenon was called "stabilization of the boundary surface with a distributed junction." In the example of the skin of the dolphin, a rubber shell was created, the internal channels of which are filled with shock absorbing fluid. The use of such a shell on the torpedo made it possible to reduce turbulence by 50 percent. In the United States, it is believed that such shells will be very valuable to cover submarines, airplanes and other technical devices.
Another instructive example. In the lecture "The Fate of Humanity in Atomic Era", read at the World Exhibition in Brussels, the N. N. Semenov Soviet scientist N. Semenov, speaking about the implementation of the direct transformation of chemical energy in the near future, referred to the artificial muscle apparatus. What is it? Based on the study of the processes occurring in the muscles where the transformation of chemical energy into mechanical, two Swiss specialists created a muscle model. In place, instead of muscular tissue, a substance from the family of giants - polyacrylic acid is used.
From this acid made a thin film-tape. Finding into a sour Wednesday, it is in a state of randomly twisted chains. It is worth changing an alkaline medium, as polyacrylic acid molecules become carriers of hundreds of negative charges. They are mutually repelled, the molecule straightens until it takes the ribbon form when the charges of the same name will be maximally removed from each other. Reverse replacement of the medium causes twisting of the giant molecule, etc. If the molecule is connected to the load, then, straightening and twisting, it will work. So chemical energy directly turns into mechanical. It is possible to achieve tangible results. Polyacrylic acid cord with a diameter of 1 cm is able to lift the load weighing up to 100 kg. This is the result that is interesting for technology.
Of particular interest, bionics data are presented for radio electronics. The results of biionic studies will help solve problems such as accumulation and processing of a large number of information, increase the reliability of radio-electronic systems, create new electronic machines, self-seeking (adaptive) devices, achieve further microminiature of equipment.
Biological bionics is particularly actively exploring the properties of the perception authorities - the eyes and ears, the elements of the nervous system, the ability of animals, fish, birds and insects to navigate in the surrounding space, communicate, moving, etc.
Currently, the technical bionics is only in the infarded stage, but now attempts to create artificial analogues of the nerve cell and methods that imitate the elementary processes of thinking are made abroad. It is believed that in the future, the device imitating the work of the nervous system can contribute to the creation of unmanned spacecraft to study the planets of the solar system without the need for remote control from the Earth. On the same basis, the creation of a wide range of bionic computing machines is conceived.
In his writings, biologists are increasingly approaching the reproduction of the senses of the most highly organized living beings and a person with his five feelings. In this area, nature is holding a non-isolated superiority over the creations of human hands. The most advanced electronic computing machines are far from the possibilities that the human brain has. The nervous system of man simultaneously takes into account incomparably more factors, has a greater number of parallel channels of information than any very perfect electronic machine. If you imagine an electronic computing machine with such a number of elements, like the brain, it would be hundreds of millions of times more of it. That would be science to learn how to create such strikingly thin and reliable elements for cars, like cells of the human nervous system!
No less valuable to create storage devices would be to explore the ability to accumulate and transmit information by chromosome, structural element of the animal or plant cell nucleus, playing an important role in the heredity of organisms. In the chromosome there is a deoxyribonucleic acid - an organic substance, whose molecule has a huge number of build options. It is estimated that the number of indicated acid, which is contained in a single cell of the human body, can encode the information contained in the text of more than 10 thousand books with two hundred thousand words in each.
The biionics is particularly interested in creating machines reproducing the individual properties of the central nervous system of the person. These are machine machines capableSelf-tracking
, That is, adapt to changing working conditions. In overseas printing, the development has been reported, for example, self-adjusting autopilot. Depending on the working conditions, its performance is changed.
Another property of the nervous system -ability to "find out"
. This property is reproduced in "recognizing" machine machines. Such machines can be used to recognize items on their external outlines, the classification of these items and a symbolic image. Devices that can recognize and highlight the signal and tune on it are very important in self-regulating systems.
Man is known tolearn
. This ability is now trying to endure and the car. It must take into account the accumulated experience and draw conclusions for the future. In military business, such machines can serve to automatically improve the already created weapons systems and other purposes.
The study of the human brain, the use of data from this to create automata capable of performing at least part of its functions, discover remarkable prospects for the development of the latest areas of modern technology.
So, the emergence and development of Bionics contributed to the increased need of humanity in the processing and transfer of huge amounts of information. Biionics technical base - achievements in electronic computing equipment and microminiature of equipment. Its further development, according to foreign specialists, depends on the attention to the analytical areas in neurology, physiology and other areas of biology, the formerly so far mainly descriptive sciences. Of course, the training of specialists who know both biology and electronics will also need.
The faithful of its aggressive course, the imperialists of the United States of America and this new branch of science seek to use in order to prepare for war. The US Department of Defense, according to printing, carefully monitors the development of bionics. Works in this area leads the Department of Aviation Development of the US Air Force Research Center. Orders works on the problems of bionics and the US Navy. On the meaning that is attached to the new science, the head of the American Department of Research and Development of the Air Force General, General Schriver said:"Bionics will give the key to solving the task of improving the weapons and characteristics of personnel serving weapons." Next, he noted that "Bionics attracts the attention of American experts to the fact that the use of living models as a key to the functioning of radio-electronic or mechanical systems opens up new perspectives in the technique"
Among biological processes that are especially interested in American specialists, there is both the process of creating "nature of microscopically small, but extremely sensitive perceiving elements."
Attention is attracted to the work of the nervous system of living organisms, the transformation of nerve impulses, the study of accumulation and recovery of information, etc.
Bionics studies conducted in the United States relate to the electrical characteristics of living fabrics and processes of excitation, physiology and chemistry of biological "clock", rhythmic changes in the rate of exchange processes. Studies in the field of bionic mathematics are also carried out, "antennas" of butterflies, migratory behavior of pigeons, fish connection, the use of smelling for orientation in aquatic animals, analysis of the waves in the ear must be studied. The theory of multi-sized information is being developed, a mathematical analysis of the design of a computing machine having 109
In September 1960, the first national symposium in Bionics was held in the United States under the motto: "Live prototypes are the key to new technique." 700 people participated in it: Radioelectronics - 60 percent, physicists - 10 percent, mathematicians - 10 percent, biologists, biophysicists and biochemists - 5 percent, psychologists and psychiatrists - 5 percent. 25 reports presented leading educational institutions and firms of the country.
In 1961, the second symposium in Bionics was organized in the United States. Many reports covered the results of research conducted by the United States Air Force and Navy. Work in the field of military use of Bionics in the United States continued in 1962 with even greater scope. Thus, the press indicated that the Air Force was led by 14 developments, and the Navy supported about 30 works in this direction.
American specialists make a big bet on Bionics to solve the problems of communication development. So, in front of them, according to their recognition, the difficult tasks of processing information circulating in the electronic system connecting military bases, various types of weapons. I worry them and the problem of reliability, such as a communication system with satellites. In this case, it is considered too small in the United States the service life of the equipment, it must be increased 100-200 times. Experts expect that the study of the reliability of living organisms will give the key to solving this task.
It tastes attention abroad and the task of reducing the dimensions and weight of electronic equipment in aviation. In the meantime, they are not reduced, but they grow rapidly. So the American bomber released in the fortieth year had 2000 electronic parts on board, the 1955 plane is 50,000 electronic parts, and on the combat vehicle of 1960, 97,000 electronic parts are used. That is why aviators are interested in problems of dimensions, weights, on-board nutrition. It is not by chance that it is representatives of US aviation representatives that are shotpers of learning and artificial reproduction of light and compact devices of living organisms that require a small energy consumption.
Due to the ever wider development of bionics and greater possibilities opened to apply its achievements in military affairs, it is important that the wider range of people in our country familiarize himself with the most important problems solved by the new branch of science. It is especially useful to know our military readers.
Recently, scientists of a number of countries are very actively exploring the organs of five senses (eyes, ears, sense of smell, taste and tanging) of living organisms. Moreover, the ability to feel the temperature, pain, vibration, equilibrium, etc. is studied.
Perceptions, essentially convert one type of energy to another and have a huge sensitivity, greater than the corresponding converters created by man. For example, it turned out that some fish are extremely sensitive to the smell. One of them can detect the presence of a bulk substance, if even a solution of the solution is contained only 10-14
It is the interest and mystery of the design of a microscopic receiver of ultrasound oscillations available in moth, behind which bats are hunted. This receiver that perceives frequencies from 10 to 100 kHz allows moths to detect the enemy by the radiation of its locator at a distance of up to 30 m.
New opportunities for infrared technology can open the study of a special organ of racial snakes, which perceives heat radiation and responding to a change in the temperature of the radiating body literally per thousandth fraction of degree. With this body, the snake, which actually sees badly, can find his sacrifice in the dark. Such sensitivity to provide thermal coordinators of rocket homing systems and other automatic control devices are dreamed of foreign specialists.
With special attention, scientists of many countries explore the organs of view by which over 90 percent of all information penetrates into the body. Photoreceptors are subject to careless studies - nerve cells that perceive light irritation, energy transmission processes from them and the processing of visual information. Attracts specialists and the nature of the movement of the eyes, overview of the eye of space and much more.
The eyes of a frog, a marine animal - a sword, insects are intensively studied. Foreign experts believe that the study of the structure of the eye, the mechanism of view and the characteristics of human and animal and animals can benefit to improve photo-exploration systems, clarifying the mechanism of color vision and solving other technical tasks.
No less difficult task is the development of artificial organs of vision. An artificial system of Bell-Phone is built by an artificial system, which reproduces one of the four functions of the frog's eyes. Another company built a model of "detectors of insects" in the image and similarity of the visual vehicle. The model contains seven photocells, six of them cause irritation, and the seventh-braking of artificial nerve. In the absence of an insect, all photocells are lighted uniformly and irritation and braking signals are completely backed. When an insect appears, the central photocell is darkened, it means that the braking signal is weak and the irritation signal applies to the "nerve".
It is also reported on the development of an electronic device, which reproduces the effect of the eye of the horseshoe-like crab. This eye was interested in scientists by the fact that it has the ability to strengthen the contrast of images of visible objects. This property of the crab eye is supposed to be used to facilitate the analysis of television images, as well as aerial photographs, photos of the moon, etc.
Very significant results give a more detailed study of human hearing organs. It is known that the concentric winding of the ear shell is as needed for hearing, as well as the second eye for view, they provide the ability to define the prospects - the location of the sound source. The studies have established that due to the curved convolutions of the ear shell, the sound comes to the eardrum reappeckens. This allows you to determine the location of the sound source.
Among the possible applications of this discovery - the creation of a synthetic "outdoor ear" for a device capturing underwater sound sources. One of the scientists in the United States demonstrated thick discs with three holes drilled in them, which, as he indicated, perform the role of human sink. Such a perforated disc, placed under the microphone head, which is recorded, creates a lag in time, allowing the recording while listening to the recording to determine the distance and direction of the sound.
By type of jellyfish, Soviet scientists have built a device that predicts the approximation of the storm. It turns out that even such a simplest marine animal hears unavailable infrasounds, arising from friction of air waves and having a frequency of 8-13 oscillations per second.
The jellyf has a skeleton, an end with a fluid ball, in which pebbles are floating on the end of the nerve. The first perceives the "voice" of the flask storm filled with liquid, then through the pebbles, this voice is transmitted nerves. In the device that imitating the hearing body of the jellyfish (Fig. 3), there are a root, a resonator that transmits the oscillations of the desired frequencies, the piezodatchik, which converts these oscillations to the electrical current pulses. Next, these pulses are enhanced and measured. Such a device allows to determine the offensive of the storm in 15 hours.Fig. 3. Diagram of the device - predictor storm
Since 1950, one of foreign experts uses an artificial ear, which is a microphone of a special design. The electric current flowing into the circuit of the microphone excites the limb of the auditory nerve. This, of course, the first, still imperfect design, since in reality the auditory nerve has a complex "information encryption". To recreate artificially, a lot of effort will need a lot of effort, in particular, specialists in electronics.
In this regard, abroad is intensively studied by the mechanism of perception of sounds by a person using an electronic model that reproduces the frequency properties of the ear. Specialists managed to penetrate the essence of many phenomena, in particular in the process of perception of the timbre.
Specialists also try to create a model, which is similar to the human ear distinguishes weak signals against the background of noise.
In addition to the organs of vision and hearing, the attention of specialists attract the body of temperature sensitivity from the grasshoppers (it is located on the twelfth segment of the mustache), at the rods and sharks, the mechanisms of a sense of time in animals, birds and insects. Mechanisms of feeling of time are called biological clock. They control the rhythms of the life of the body, and for one rhythm there are several hours. The study of them in insects showed that they are associated with special cells in nerve nodes. These cells produce special hormones to control the rhythms of vital activity.
Research of biological watches was conducted in a number of foreign universities and institutions. They showed that these watches are insensitive to temperature change only at certain frames. When the temperature is outputting for these frames, for example, when cooling to 0 °, the biological clock stops. After increasing the temperature to normal, they begin to go again, lagging behind the stop time.
Specialists abroad seek to create an electrical analogue of biological clocks. The analogue introduced the generator, the character of oscillations of which depends on the environmental impact - alternations of light and darkness, phases of the moon, etc. This device, by the plan of its designers, "must shed light on the processes of functioning of biological systems when exposed to periodically changing conditions for the surrounding Wednesdays.
In the Atomic Energy Pavilion, at the All-Union exhibition of achievements of the USSR national economy, the attention of visitors attracts a manipulator who, as it were, lengthens the operator's hands and allows him to do the work where the person cannot be located in any way. Such a situation may, for example, arise at the enterprise of the nuclear industry, where there are radioactive contamination zones. And here in the place where any operations should be performed, manipulators operated at a distance. They have a large number of degrees of freedom and are capable of operator teams observing a safe place, perform a variety of operations. They can take vessels, overflow liquids, light match, etc.
If you are inserted into the manipulator device in more detail, you can establish that this is the principle of action - a lever. It is intended to perform a strictly defined number of operations required for the implementation of the experiment. But is it possible to create a manipulator without a lever system? And here to help scientists can come knowledge of the basics of management in a living organism, and in particular biotoks.
What are biotoki and when they are detected? Electric fish, that is, fish, in the body of which high potential differences arise, were known to people long before the first artificial current source was created. Of course, on people of those remote times, the electrical properties of fish were prevented by fear, since small animals were in their presence due to electrical discharges, lesions were defeated.
The first who researched electricity in a living organism was Italian Luigi Galvani. In the 90s of the XVIII century, he conducted a number of experiments with a frog and found that short-term currents occur in neuromuscular tissue under certain conditions. Electricity, concluded a scientist, is in a living organism.
Alessandro Volta acted against these findings, which created the first current source called later by a galvanic element. But modern science confirms the correctness of the conclusions of the galvana. Indeed, in the living organism, electricity exists.
... Sea fish from the genus Astroscopus has a way to produce food based on the use of electrical energy. The eyes and mouth at this fish are located on the back. If there is a small little male in her field of view, the predator is manufactured to the "attack". At the time of the appearance of fry at the level of the eye to the electrical organs, the signal comes, and the electric discharge is sent towards the fry. Stunned Male drops straight predator in the mouth.
Currently, more than a hundred species of fish, capable of producing electricity with a fairly high potential difference. So, the electric slot can create a voltage up to 70 V. The discharge with such a difference of potentials is the means of protecting the skate from the attack of enemies. Electric Som, depending on the irritation, is able to cause a voltage of 80-100 V and more, and electric eel - from 300 to 500 V.
Fish capable of creating strong electrical discharges are found mainly in the tropical seas. They produce electricity with their special electrical organs.
But this does not mean that only some living organisms are peculiar to electricity. They simply have electrical properties expressed to a stronger extent. Weaker currents systematically arise in all living and even plant organisms. In the study of currents in organisms called bioelectric, such scientists have made a great contribution such as Dubois Ramon, I. M. Sechenov and others. The wonderful Russian physiologist N. E. Vvedensky in 1882 made the biotoks filed his voice: he managed to hear the muscle and nerves of man into the phone. Somewhat later, our compatriot V. Yu. A Chavets based on the generalization of all data on biotoks received before him substantiated the theory of their occurrence in a living organism. This theory was then based on modern ideas about biotoks. There was a special branch of physiology engaged in electrical processes in organs and tissues of the body.
How does she explain the origin of biotoks now? In the process of metabolism between the organism and the environment, hundreds of biochemical reactions occur between tissues and organs, electrically charged molecules and atoms called ions are formed. Positive ions (cations) are smaller in size, more movable than negative ions (anions). As a result, the cations are easier through the cellular partitions than the anions, the conditions for their separation are created, that is, the formation between individual parts of the muscular, iron or nervous tissue of the potential difference. In the body of the non-working person, it reaches 0.01 V, in the body of the working - reaches 0.03 V. When tissue damage, the potential difference can reach 0.06-0.07 V. The role of the conductor for currents resulting from the presence of potential difference is played by tissues with higher conductivity than the neighboring.
Biotoks are formed in all organs and tissues. They arise and when working with the heart, consuming then throughout the body. Relaxed heart has a positive potential, abbreviated - negative.
Especially important is attached to the study of currents formed during the work of the brain. The difference between their potentials is measured by millions of volt. The brain currents can be detected by imposing special electrodes on the head and connecting them with an electron amplifier (with a gain in tens of thousands). As a result, on the oscilloscope screen, you can see the nature of currents and their changes.
Scientists have established that brain currents have a certain rhythm. There are already several such rhythms - alpha, beta, gamma and others. The frequency of changes in alpha rhythm (8-12 oscillations per second), it is higher at beta-rhythm (20-30 oscillations per second) and even higher at gamma rhythm. Frequencies, which means and rhythms depend on the state in which there is a person. A certain disruption of the brain is defined by the same changes in biotokov. Such a dependence of the nature of currents from the state of the body allows scientists to study the processes occurring in the human brain. And not only to learn, but sometimes to judge whether a person is healthy if sick, then, and so on.
And in 1962, the biotoks of the brain were used to observe from the Earth for the body of the body of astronauts of Andria Nikolaev and Paul Popovich. For this, scientists had to use the biotelemetry system, that is, transmission on the radio data on the biotoks. Special equipment has been created, developed the most effective way to drive biotokov, the extension system of electrodes.
And on August 11, 1962, during the preparation of A. Nikolaev, a headset with small silver electrodes in the forehead and a nape was put on the flight. On the surface of the electrodes - a thin layer of a special paste. It compacts the contact of the electrodes with the skin.
The wires from the electrodes are summed up to a miniature amplifier placed together with power sources in a small box, and it is in the pocket of the Squadder.
Only the historical flight began, and on Earth, Space Medicine specialists had already at the hands of a person's recording of human biotlocks in the interplanetary space. The same records were carried out from the side of the East-4 spacecraft, piloted P. Popovich. Deciphering these records gave a rich scientific material. Obtaining first in the history of science records of biotoks from space is an outstanding achievement of Soviet space medicine and our electronics.
The study of the biotets of the cosmonaut's brain allows to obtain an idea of the physiological state of the central nervous system as a whole and makes it possible to judge its reactions to various influences associated with multi-day cosmic flights. Introduction to the program of observations of astronauts to record their brain biotoks pursued the goal of investigating the nervous psychic condition of the human body during prolonged stay in a state of weightlessness. The method of studying brain biotypes to a certain extent also allows you to control the state of sleep and wakefulness, fatigue and excitation.
Cosmonauts were studied at a distance not only brain biotoks, but also the electrical activity of the heart muscle, skin-galvanic reactions. Control over the electrical activity of the heart muscle gives an idea of the state of the cardiovascular system. It also was used in previous flights, which made it possible to compare the data obtained.
The study of the skin-galvanic reactions also serves as a task of studying the state of the central nervous system. Under the skin-galvanic reactions, a complex complex of bioelectric activity of the skin, due to swelling biotoks and its electric (ohmic) resistance, is understood. As a result of the excitation of higher vegetative centers, changes in the electrical resistance of the skin. It means that it can be judged on pain irritations, emotional stresses, etc.
In observations of astronauts from the Earth, the registration of eye movements, based on the capture of the potential difference between the positively charged eyeballs and the negatively charged with the internal departments (retina and shell) were used. At the same time, in some cases, biotoks of eye muscles were also able to celebrate.
All these changes were intended to obtain objective information on violations of the vestibular apparatus of cosmonauts (apparatus, the "knowledge" by the equilibrium of the human body). The fact is that with such violations there are involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyeball, characterized by a certain scope and frequency. In addition to observation of violations of the vestibular apparatus, the method of registration of eye movements gives some idea of the motor activity of the cosmonaut.
Since the currents formed in the brain are variables, they cause an electromagnetic field in the surrounding medium, of course much weaker than those fields that create radio station antennas. However, the electromagnetic field of the brain can be trapped. Recently, for example, we managed to take "brain" waves at a distance of several meters. At the same time, the nature of the waves, as was supposed, depends on what is currently engaged in a person. And this, apparently, will also bring great benefit to science, especially medicine.
Already in overseas printing, a wide discussion has unfolded around telepathy - transmission of thoughts at a distance. The French magazine, for example, described that the experiment of the mental connection between people would have been described, one of which was on the shore, the other - on the removal of 2000 km from the shore on board the Nautilus nuclear submarine. In the appointed sessions, a man on the shore was to guess the cards about which a man in swimming thought. The coincidence that would have reached 70 percent.
How reliably this message is difficult to judge. But the fact that the use of the physical field of the brain scientists already think seriously, undoubtedly.
But back to the biofurses. After all, we began to talk about them in connection with the possibility of their application to improve control tools at a distance, and in particular lever manipulators. It turns out that this is a very real thing.
Let's, reader, mentally move the transition from the Atomic Energy Pavilion of the All-Union Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy in the Pavilion of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Here is a biota manipulator. It has a lot in common with the lever, but there is also a fundamental difference between biotok. To do this, the bracelet is put on the operator's hand, the electrodes of which are closely in contact with the skin on the forearm site. It is in this place that the muscles, causing the bending and extension of the fingers of the man's hands. From the bracelet, the wire stretches to the artificial brush - manipulator. Start the operator bending his hand, and the artificial hand will begin exactly the same movement. This is achieved due to the fact that the biotoks arising in the muscle are captured by the bracelet, enhance and bind to artificial hand.
In fig. 4 (at the top) showing a block diagram of bioelectric control. It includes a current collector, amplifier, converters, executive body (manipulator). The converter is designed to determine which movement intends to perform the operator, and give the appropriate pulse to the manipulator. In fig. 4 (below) shows the scheme of the hydroelectric drive of the artificial hand of the biotechnical manipulator.Fig. four. Bioelectric manipulator and its hydroelectric drive
How does bioelectric control process occur? To better understand this, we must remember how information is carried out from nerve cells to the brain of the person and orders from it with muscles. The main role in this is played by the processes of nervous excitement. Nervous cells (receptors) when irritation affects them, "respond" by signals. And here is the law: all or nothing. That is, as long as irritation does not reach some threshold, it does not cause the nervous cell excitation. As soon as it exceeds this value, impulses pass through the nerve fiber. These impulses are sent to the brain, reporting information: "hot", "quiet", "loud", "white", "red", etc.
The orders of the muscles to action are also transmitted in the form of specific impulses. These impulses on the nervous network come, for example, in the muscles that control the movements of the brush hand. The pulses follow one after another with a certain frequency, which is the higher, the stronger the lado the brush. The frequency reaches tens and hundreds of pulses per second, and their amplitude remains unchanged, as it is determined not by the force of irritation, but the properties of the nerve.
And so we decided to use biotoks arising in the muscle to control artificial hand. Here we will be waiting for such difficulties as a small strength of the signals, the presence of a large number of biotokov, from which the impulses you are interested in. This is for this and are provided in the Bioelectric Manipulator scheme, the amplifier and the conversion unit, solidifying the intelligence of the operator.
Thus, the bioelectric manipulator is a control system in which the "program" sets a living organism, and it works out its external technical device. Can there be a system of bioelectric management of another kind? Yes. You can specify a program in the form of electrical pulses using a technical device, and the living organism will carry out this program. Such a system is, for example, in the apparatus for the treatment of electric power. The electrical impulses generated by the generator affect the brain, cause braking of nerve cells, the body of sleep occurs in the body.
Such a question arises: whether it is impossible to ensure that the bioelectric manipulator does not only compress and squeezed artificial hand, but also reproduced other functions of a person's hand? Of course, it is possible, but sometimes it is technically advisable to reproduce only certain hand movements, not too complicating the design of the manipulator.
It should be noted that artificial hand can ensure effort many times more than a person's hand. This does not prevent the fact that biotoks are weak. After all, they act as a control signal, and it can "command" immeasurably more powerful sources of energy.
Bioelectric manipulator is only the first step in the development of this new control system. Ahead is a wide prospect of using the biotoks of various muscles, in particular the heart muscle, muscles that control the breathing movements, etc. Already established in our country the X-ray control system at the expense of the biotok of the heart muscle. This makes it possible to get a picture of the heart at any time of its reduction.
The radiation of radio waves with the muscles of the human body is underway. In American printing, for example, the presence of radiation at a frequency of 150 kHz and above. This radiation happens when the muscle is tense and works. Moreover, different muscles emit differently, smaller stronger than large ones. Music muscles are particularly strongly radiation. The form of all these radiation is sharp peaks.
Scientists of the NATO aggressive blocks are trying to use biotions primarily to create military devices.
The French magazine "Xyansevi" in December 1961 wrote about the use of biotoks as an amplifier of muscular energy. Doctors Ellis and Schnedermeyer have developed a system that gives an opportunity to increase the electrolynographic potential of muscles six times. Perceiving this potential using metal disks adjacent to the skin at the point of the greatest tide of the nervous energy to the skin, the discs select biotions and make it possible to use them to power the small motor.
The stubborn is noted on the possibility of using this opening for military purposes. "Servosoldat" will be able to carry heavy gear and move running much faster than ordinary people. Such a soldier will be able to move and aircraft on muscular energy.
Now science studies the ability to use brain biotok management. This would mean that brain biotoks themselves would command the work of the machine, technical devices would act according to the orders of human thought.
The study of processes in nature is able to provide technology not only bioelectric controls at a distance, but also sources of electricity based on the use of decomposition and oxidation of organic substances leading to the production of electricity. It is known, for example, that electricity is formed in the bottom layer of the ocean, there seems to be a gigantic fuel cell. The principle of operation of such an element is reproduced in Fig. five.Fig. five.
Scheme of the biochemical fuel cell
As can be seen from the figure, the fuel cell consists of two sections separated by a semi-permeable partition. Inside sections - inert cathodes. The anode section contains "fuel" - a mixture of sea water with organic substances, as well as a catalyst - bacterial cells. Sea water with oxygen is placed in the cathode section. When the element is operating, as in the bottom layer of the ocean, the fuel is oxidized and the energy is released, which is supplied as an electric current into the outer chain.
The advantages of such an element is low cost, because it uses "free" products. As for the time of work, it can be infinitely large if in the cathode section to introduce live algae with the addition of inorganic salts necessary for their power, and illuminate the element with sunlight. Print reports interest in such elements of the US Navy.
In another "biochemical source to accelerate the decay and oxidation process, a different type of bacteria is used, thanks to which the reactions are accelerated by a million times.
The element has a voltage of 0.5-1 V. Due to the fact that wastewater bacteria can be used, in particular bacteria from the intestine of a person, the theoretical possibility of creating systems with a closed cycle for cosmic shells can be opened. In the US, research is conducted in this direction.
So the study of electrical phenomena in nature enriches electrical engineering with a new arsenal of funds.
Birch's great interest is manifested in nature living organisms oriented in their movement, determine obstacles, unmistakably find the right direction in very long journeys. A considerable benefit of navigation device designers brought, for example, a detailed study of some insect orientation authorities in flight.
... The attention of the naturalists has long been attracted by two appendage from behind the wings in double insects, having the shape of a cloth connected to a thin cushion. This is a buzz, which in flight continuously vibrate. The outer end of each of them moves along the arc trajectory. The trend towards such a movement is preserved and when changing the direction of flight. This creates a stuffing of a pet for which the insect brain defines the change in the direction and gives the team muscles, the control of the movement of the wings.
The principle of this device was used by designers when creating a new type gyroscope. It is known that the gyroscope-an indispensable sensitive element of all management systems moving objects, including ships, aircraft, rockets. According to the desire of the buzz in its design, vibrating thin plates. It turned out that such a gyroscope has much more sensitivity than the usual one. But its main advantage is lower exposure to the influence of high accelerations. Becoming "soul", for example, such a device, as a pointer of aggregates, he found applied on modern high-speed aircraft.
Here is another example of the successful application of bionics data. It is its data that it was possible to create a "heaven compass of polarized light", that is, a device capable of locating the polarization plane to determine the location of the light source. Made a compass in the image and likeness of the eye of flies or bee. It is known that independent elements of the spherical eyes of these insects (ommatids) are divided into eight parts located as an asterisk. The degree of transmission of polarized light is depending on the direction from which it comes. Not accidentally for eyes, for example, bees Different areas of the sky will have an unequal brightness. On this basis, it determines its location towards the Sun even when it is hidden by clouds. Similarly, the heavenly compass of polarized light can be used in shipment for the orientation of the position of the shone, regardless of the weather.
Based on the action of Ommatidia, it was created abroad and another device. It is known that there are several images of the subject. It helps to watch the moving object, because it consistently enters the field of view of each ivymidium. On this property, the insect can determine the speed of the subject.
The insect's eye device served as a prototype of a new device for instant measurement of the aircraft speed. The device turned out inexpensive, small. He informs the observer about the speed of the aircraft or any other body crossing his field of view.
The above examples show the possibilities of bionics to improve the navigation technology, but do not give any reason to argue that all processes in nature are beginnings and remains only to collect fruits. In fact, Bionics have a lot of unresolved problems, in particular in the study of methods and devices that allow animals to navigate in various conditions and especially during migration.
Various representatives of the animal world - cranes, bats, acne - overcome the distances of many thousands of kilometers and always come to the place of their reproduction. Even such a low-speed creature, like a turtle, can overcome long distances, strictly withstanding the desired direction. Every three years, sea turtles, overcoming the path of five with more than thousands of kilometers, are collected in a certain place for the laying of eggs.
Experts suggested that migration is explained by the search for warm edges. But it turned out, a petrel, for example, makes way from Antarctic to the North Pole. So this explanation is not enough.
With a more attentive study of the migration process, they noticed that the flight of birds affects, so to speak, "Astronomical situation". It was possible to install in the planetarium, where the stars was reproduced and observation of the night flight of the robes. The fact that in flight some birds are focused on the stars, maybe explains the fact that at night they fly over the clouds, at the height of many thousands of meters.
How this orientation is carried out - to say until it is impossible. However, some indirect hints on the nature of the processes are already there. It has been established that radio waves emitted by the transmitters of locators and connected stations interfere with "devices" of bird orientation in flight to perform their functions. It means that the bird navigation system is based on the use of electromagnetic oscillations.
It is known how much the astronavigation systems in the management of missiles in aircraft and shipment are now acquired. As it would be important to the methods of bionics to explain this ability of animals, to study and technically reproduced such an amazing organ.
Connoisseurs of modern radar techniques can not but interest such a fact. Two American scientists decided to explore the question of how males of the butterfly "Small Night Peacock Eye" (Saturnia Pavonia) find a female at a distance of 10 km. It was decided to conclude a female under the glass. The males butterflies still flew to the female. Nothing gave the placement of females for the metal grid. Only a screen that does not transmit infrared rays, as it were, completely isolated butterflies of various sexes from each other. American scientists safely concluded that the males have, as it were, the "Locator of Infrared Rays". Maybe further research will refine this initial conclusion. However, it is no doubt that such small-sized devices for detecting objects at distances in tens of kilometers deserve the most close attention.
The US Navy's Research Research is conducted by the "biological navigation system" of pigeons. Scientists seek to reveal the secret of how pigeons are focused on unfamiliar terrain and find the way to home. To observe these birds throughout their flight, a completely new system is applied. It is based on the reception of the signals of a miniature radio transmitter, strengthened on the back of the pigeon.
The radio transmitter operates in a meter wave range (frequency of 140 MHz). It is assembled exclusively on semiconductors and weighs 66.8 g. Sources of current are mercury batteries, providing 20 hours of continuous operation. Antenna - graduation, length of 101.6 cm. So that it does not be confused in the tail feathers, a significant part of it is dressed in fiberglass.
Along the estimated route, the pigeon is located receiving stations for recording the direction of its movement. Receivers can receive signals from the "radio-" pigeon from any direction at distances over 33 km. Increased pigeon, in a strictly defined time, and the point of it is applied to the card. During one flight of pigeons in the Philadelphia district, observation was carried out for 33 km.
In addition to the direction of flight, it was decided to monitor the changes in the external environment and the responses of the body of the body of them. Interested in scientists and blood pressure and pigeon breathing. As a result, they hope to reveal the mystery of biological navigation and on this basis to create small navigation and detection systems.
Studies are not limited to pigeons, it is planned to explore the "experience" of birds as Albatrosse. It is also intended to organize the studies of the movements of brown dolphins, whales, sharks, sea turtles, that is, such animals that are near the water surface almost all the time, which facilitates tracking them.
It is known that when explaining the principle of radar usually refer to volatile mice, which easily distinguish between obstacles in flight, radiating sound waves and taking reflected signals. But it turned out that not only the principle of the operation of the location apparatus of mice is of interest, but also its device and characteristics. Scientists have established now that this device has greater accuracy than created by man radio and hydrocators. It turned out that the bats of one of the species easily detect a wire with a diameter of less than 0.3 mm, despite the fact that it gives, of course, an extremely weak reflected signal.
It is also characteristic that the accuracy of the discovery of the obstacle is achieved even with noise, the intensity of which is many times higher than the intensity of the received signal. Thus, according to the English scientist L. Kay, the echolocation apparatus of volatile mice successfully acts even with the signal intensity to the intensity of the noise background, equal to 35 (in the logarithmic units of the decibel).
It also turns out that different types of volatile mice, echolocation devices are arranged differently and various signals are used for orientation. Ordinary insectivorous mice make ultrasound with frequency modulation. Their frequency varies from 90 to 40 kHz during the order of several milliseconds (from 10 to 0.5 milliseconds).
In fig. 6 shows the signals emitted by the insectoral mouse recorded on the film with different methods. The signals were captured by the capacitive microphone and were fed to the discriminator, that is, the detector of frequency-modulated oscillations. The output voltage of the straightened current was directly proportional to the frequency of input signals and did not depend on their amplitude.Fig. 6. Recording on the film of signals emitted by the insectivinal mouse
How does the "locator" of the insectan mouse act? It flies with an open mouth, as a result, the radiated signals field overlaps the angle of 90 °. The idea of the direction, according to specialists, the mouse receives due to the comparison of signals taken by the ears, which are raised during the flight as receiving antennas. The confirmation of this opinion is that it is worth dealing with one ear of a volatile mouse, as it completely loses the orientation.
The literature notes that the ear sink of the bat is arranged in about the same way as in humans, but the range of received frequencies is wider - from 30 Hz to 100 kHz.
The process of detecting objects of the insectivinal bat is still not fully found out and is studied. As for objects on removal to 1-1.2 m, it is assumed that the mouse may distinguish signals from several of them. As shown in Fig. 7, the addition of radiated pulses modulated by frequency, and reflected signals gives signals of the difference frequency Δf, which will be proportional to the distance to the object. The duration of the difference frequency signals is also a distance function.Fig. 7. The addition of radiated pulses modulated by frequency, and reflected signals and receiving signals proportional to the distance to the object
It was assumed that at distances, large 1.2 m, the accuracy of the detection of objects with the mouse would have to decrease. However, the behavior of mice does not confirm this, accuracy remains unchanged.
To explain this phenomenon, the following hypothesis is put forward. The mouse can radiate oscillations that are not detected by the existing equipment. Or to measure the direction to the object, the frequency modulation method is used. Objects on the right and on the left are created in different ears different frequencies of beats. The difference in the frequencies of the beats is proportional to the corner and does not depend on the distance.
Another type of volatile mice - row - is used for the orientation of pure tones of the frequency of about 80 kHz in the form of a constant amplitude pulse duration on average about 60 milliseconds. Using a high-speed recording apparatus on a magnetic tape, it was possible to obtain characteristics of signals emitted by mice-diaphorers. As can be seen from fig. 8, at the end of the pulse is noticeably changing the frequency. It decreases according to a linear law with a speed of 10-20 kHz / s for 2 milliseconds. This frequency change resembles the signals of ordinary insectivore mice.Fig. 8. Writing on the magnetic tape of signals emitted by mice
Externally, behavior in flight of the mice of these two species is different. Ordinary - straight fixed ears, near the horseshoes - continuous movements head and vibrating ears. It is characteristic that the conclusion of one ear does not prevent the Middle Ages to navigate. But damage to the muscles, controlling the movement of the ears, deprives his ability to fly.
It is assumed that with the help of the ears movement, the mouse modulates the received reflected signals and compares them with emitted. Batings are formed, synchronous with the movement of the ears even at rest and in the case of fixed objects. In the same time, perhaps the mouse determines the distance to objects using the Doppler effect. This effect consists in changing the frequency, such as sound, depending on the movement (convergence or removal) of the source with respect to the observer.
At the same time, it is suggested that in the processes of the "locators" of the mice of both species there are great similarities. At this conclusion, the presence of a section with a variable frequency at the end of the pulse emitted by mice-diaphoma is pushing.
We are not in order to provide details of the device and the process of action of "locators" of these living beings to become one of the point of view and put all the points over "and". Example once again talks about the utility of the study of the echolocation devices of the living world. This is important not only to develop new principles of radar, improving the structures of radar, but also ensure their work in conditions of interference.
In the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), the "interpretation of data" methods used by volatile mice are investigated. Professionals are interested in how these animals covered with fur are distinguished among the squeaks and shrill shouts of other volatile mice their reflected signals. For research, special complex equipment was made - ultrasound frequency meters, microphones, etc. It is believed that such a study may be useful in the development of protection of radar systems from interference.Fig. nine.
Schematic representation of the process of studying the dolphin hydrolycation apparatus
For hydrolycation, it is very valuable for the studies of the hydrolycation apparatus of brown dolphins (Fig. 9). Scientists found that the dolphins emit the sounds of two birth. For communication, dolphins publish
Series of clicking sounds in the frequency range from 10 to 400 Hz. The sounds emitted by dolphins in order to detect various objects in the sea water in the range from 750 to 300,000 Hz and are published by various parts of the body of dolphins.
It has been established that dolphins react to sounds up to 80,000 Hz. It is also noted that the dolphin hydrolytrical apparatus exceeds the existing hydrolyators not only with accuracy, but also by range. And here, as in many other cases, we still have to "catch up" in nature.
Already, the first studies have shown that the hydrolycate apparatus allows the dolphin not only to detect fish that serve it to be food, but also to distinguish their breed at a distance of 3 km. At the same time, the degree of proper detection is 98-100 percent. During experiments, Dolphin never tried to catch fish separated from it with a glass barrier, and in 98 cases from 100 sailed through the open hole in the grid, and not through the hole, closed with a transparent plate.
In addition to dolphins, the hydrocarization apparatus has guinea pigs. Using this apparatus, they find themselves prey. Even in muddy water, guinea pigs detect a piece of food with a size of 2.5 mm on a distance of 15 m. The guinea pig hydroletor operates at a frequency of 196 kHz.
In one of the United States universities, the ability of a shark for sacrifices is carefully examined. It is based on the perception of sounds and vibrations. The shark homing mechanism is supposed to be adapted to create managed weapons.
Scientists assume that tropical fish are able to produce electromagnetic waves, emit them and use to detect any items. Such a fish, in particular, is Mormirus-Nile lane, or water layers. He has a peculiar "generator" of low-frequency electromagnetic oscillations located in the tail. Emptied by long-sided electromagnetic energy, spreading in space, is reflected from obstacles. Reflected signals are captured by special fish bodies located at the base of the spinal fin. This fish detects the presence of a network, "sees" the crushing descended into the water, "feels" the magnet approximation. The study of this "locator" may open scientists to new facts associated with the capture and use of electromagnetic emissions, characteristic of one degree or another to all animals, and enrich the science and technique with new principles for designing equipment, in particular for location in water.
In the introduction to the book, we talked about the property of living organisms to maintain a certain state with a significant change in external conditions. It was about regulating the body temperature, blood pressure, etc. The property of maintaining certain characteristics when changing external conditions is calledHomeostasis
, and the regulation systems in the body -homeostatic
Homeostatic systems with a large variety of external perturbations are capable of maintaining the constant value of the adjustable value. When adapting to changing conditions, local changes occur, which do not violate the integrity of the entire system. In the overwhelming majority in the body there is a real ensemble of interrelated systems: so many values they are simultaneously supported within certain limits.
From homeostatic systems in a living organism, science now takes a step towards self-passing management systems in the technique. Before considering them in detail, once again return to simpler automatic control systems.
Extremely distributed in the technique of a system of automatic feedback. As it was already noted above, at the output of the automatic control object, it is subtracted from the output adjustable value of the specified value. By the magnitude of the deviation, the regulator generates a control signal that reduces the deviation to zero.
However, to control more complex and less studied objects, systems were required that could not only eliminate the known deviation of the adjustable value from the specified, but also solve more complex tasks, automatically search for such changes in the system itself to achieve the desired result.
Self-tuning in principle means the ability of the system to solve the problem of regulation at various disturbing effects, often even not foreseen constructor. It is achieved using devices that can continuously monitor the characteristics of the system and so affect its parameters to bring the characteristics to the optimal (highest, best).
Consider for the beginning the most simple of self-adjusting systems - extreme systems systems. They need to find and maintain such a value of the adjustable value, in which the smallest or largest of the possible values is achieved (it is called an extreme) specific characteristic of the mode. An extremal value can be attributed to the minimum of energy consumption, fuel, maximum efficiency and so on.
In order to better imagine the principle of operation of the self-adjusting system, wept for an example of regulating the supply of fuel into the aircraft engines. The managing system is set: to provide the most economical flight. As you know, this can be achieved at each height by establishing the optimal mode: a certain speed, the number of engine speed, a specific expenditure. With a change in the height, these characteristics change. A self-adjusting system using data from control devices should automatically determine the optimal values of the adjustable parameters that would provide the most economical flight.
More complex task of maintaining the highest mode in cases where some or even all installation conditions are not monitored and in advance are unknown not only to the degree, but also the direction of the influence of these conditions on the efficiency of the regime. In this case, automatic search systems are used.
By searching, the control device of the self-adjusting system analyzes the sample results, attempts to change the system structure and its individual parameters. To do this, computing devices are introduced into the systems that can "memorize" data perform logical operations. It turns out that the system is able to accept "logical" solutions, adapt to the changing external environment.
The automatic search system has its own predecessors in nature. In this connection, it is possible to indicate the process of development of the form, the so-called natural selection mechanism. As a "samples", various forms of living organisms that are generated in nature, of which they survive the most adapted are. By inheritance, the offspring are transmitted by those features that provide greater vitality. Variating billions of organisms, Nature formed highly developed species of living beings.
A dialogical search is carried out in an automatic device, which, trying various options, changes the characteristics and even the structure of the control device so that the system that you want to improve, has acquired the highest properties.
What are the principles for finding extreme values in self-adjusting systems? They can be sought using various movements of the regulatory body. There is, for example, the method of using small displacements (oscillations) of the regulatory body in one and the other side of its average position. Applying special devices, it is possible to analyze the results and determine the direction of movement of the regulatory body.
In fig. 10 shows the dependence of the parameter of the system ψ (for example, the efficiency of the efficiency) from the movement of the regulating organ X. The position of the regulating organ is changing under the influence of perturbations of the sinusoidal form with the frequency ω. Let when the regulatory body is first moved to the point of 1 schedule. At the same time, a sinusoidal oscillation with a frequency ω, shown at point 1. If, during the second movement, the adjusting body will fall into point 2, then the output will appear the signal of a small amplitude and twice frequency. Finally, when the frequency ω appears when entering the frequency ω, but in the antiphase with oscillation at point 1. The discriminator can highlight the maximum having the given in Table. 1 program, or "logic", work. It is usually referred to as the algorithm of the control device.Fig. ten. Automatic search using sinusoidal oscillations with a frequency Ω. The impact of such oscillations will prove to the output oscillations of the indicator ψ shown at points 1, 2, 3
To implement such "logic" of the work of the scheme, you need to have a phase sensitive rectifier (discriminator), whose commands would put an electric motor, and in turn would open the valves, moved the damper or other any regulating devices.Fig. eleven. The scheme of the control device based on the principle of memorization of the greatest indicator ψ
Another way of searches for the highest characteristics is to use the storage properties. The above was considered the processes of accumulation and maintenance of information occurring by analogy using the information of the brain, its memory. In this case, a diagram shown in Figure can be used. 11. Electric voltage (indicator ψ) is supplied to the electrodes-cathode cathode. Let the magnitude of ψ changes as shown in Fig. 10, from point 1 to points 2 and 3. When ψ reaches the maximum value, the storage capacitor with charges, "Remember" is a value. When the voltage begins to decrease, the diode is locked. The summing amplifier comparing the voltage in the cathode chain of the lamp and the inverter gives the relay command. It works and causes the engine, and behind it and the regulator to move in the opposite direction. Again, the maximum will be passed, and as soon as the value of ψ begins to fall, the relay will force the regulator back. Thus, fluctuations around the greatest value will occur in the system and the average position of the regulatory authority will correspond to this value.Fig. 12. The graph of the dependence of the system indicator ψ on the movement of the regulating organ x during cyclic search in a stepping type system
With the memorization, a cyclic search in stepping type systems is connected. In this case, it is necessary to memorize the initial value of the output signal ψ, changes in the position of the regulator Δh, the new value of the output value ψ + Δψ. On the graph fig. 12 shows the dependence of the indicator of the system ψ on the movement of the regulator X. Let the initial position of the regulating organ at the point of O. a trial step ΔХ is made. When moving to point 1, the system indicator increases, becomes + Δψ. At the starting position at point 2, the value of F under the trial step at point 3 decreases. By the sign Δψ, you can determine the direction of movement of the regulatory body. The method of such search is called cyclical because the step ΔХ is given by the special switch cyclically at equal intervals, and the direction of this step and the value is unchanged. The algorithm ("logic") of the operation of the control device can be represented as table. 2.
To implement the above "logic", a diagram containing an object of regulation, a clock generator and a control device can be applied. In turn, the control device has a storage device, an engine moving control body, and a device for determining where to move this body to search for the highest value (Fig. 13).Fig. thirteen. Schematic diagram of stepping type control device
The scheme starts working when the contact route generator is turned on1
. A test step ΔХ is done, the change in the output value (ψ + Δψ) is remembered. Then the keys are closed to3
. At the output, the magnitude of the deviation of the output value from the specified one will be released. This deviation is fed to the engine, which moves the flap or the valve so as to approach the highest position. When such a position is passed, a negative voltage is supplied to the engine, and it will start rotating in the opposite direction. As can be seen from the scheme, such an automatic device is nothing more than a specialized computing device.
If you add a specialized computing device A and an additional computing device to the usual automatic control circuit, then you can decide, for example, the task of selecting such a mode in which the control object and regulators would consume minimum fuel and electricity. Such self-adjustable systems (Fig. 14) can be very valuable not only to maintain movement, such as rockets, according to the desired trajectory, but also to transition to other trajectories, if necessary, from the point of view of economical spending of fuel and energy resources.Fig. 14. Scheme of the self-adjusting system of automatic search for the highest mode of operation
An additional computing device in sums the data on the number of fuel consumed or energy and determines the average value for a certain period of time. This value is supplied to the device A, called the optimizer, which automatically search for the highest (optimal) mode in which the minimum of energy would be spent.
Extreme automatic control systems can be widely used in military and naval technology. These systems are able to help, for example, to minimize the error or error of the system of guiding missiles, target designation, solving the problem of meeting a projectile in order to ensure the fastest leading to the effect of modern rocket-nuclear weapons. Such systems can maintain the maximum efficiency of the energy installations of ships and power plants of aircraft, to provide mode to obtain a maximum range of flight, swimming, etc.
An example of a self-adjusted system is an automatic system for identifying and selecting pulse signals against noise background (Fig. 15). It has a self-promoted filter, with which system is configured on the form of the incoming signal.Fig. 15. Flow diagram of device automatic signals
The filter circuit includes a storage device, a short-term accumulation scheme and a comparative device. The accumulation of data on the form of an input signal curve when receiving occurs in the storage device. The special device compares data from the filter entry and the output of the short-term accumulation scheme. When a series of signals of the same form appears on the input, it is fixed in the storage device. Then, from all random signal filters, pulses with a curve form will be released and skipped and skipped, which "Remember" filter.
The comparing device detects the repeatability of the pulse shape to accurately reproduce this form in the storage device.
With the disappearance of the Favorite Signal, the system comes to balance until the new signal appears, the form of which is repeated. There is a restoration of signals accumulated in the storage device.
How is the comparison of the form of the signal and the one that "remembers" the filter? This comparison is carried out at several different points placed on the envelope of the pulse. The number of such points is called the "number of measurements" of the system.
In fig. 16 shows a block diagram of an experimental system with ten dimensions proposed by one of foreign firms. The delay line, which plays the role of a short-term accumulation system, has ten taps. The storage device contains ten capacitors drawn by resistance. In the correlator, there are respectively ten multipliers.Fig. 16. Block diagram of the experimental system with ten dimensions
The voltage from the delay line and cell of the memorization is entered into a multiplier, which gives the product to the output of these two stresses. Signals from all multipliers fold and the total signal is fed to the detector. It also reveals how identical to the forms of signals. This is achieved by comparing the total signal with the one that "remembers" the filter, the so-called reference signal. If the first is equal to the second or more of it, the detector unlocks the arithmetic block of the detection system.
With the help of ten additional condensers, the "Copy" signal is enhanced. This means that at the beginning of the comparison process, the scheme produces a more accurate fixed signal into a comparing device. If the signal did not fully entered the signal, but there is only one component of it, the system still starts to "adapt" to it. There is a sign of the abyss, as the reference signal drops to zero. When the new signal appears, the system is ready for action. It means that it is able to "decipher" encoded signals with periodically changing codes. For signals with a more complex form, you need a greater number of measurements.
The self-adjustable systems are widely used abroad when developing autopilot for aircraft and rockets, as well as in the design of automatic control systems for rocketo-planes and spacecraft.
It is known that the aircraft turns out to be significantly changed depending on weight change and configuration, speed, atmospheric density, target maneuver, and type of trajectory. Thus, the self-adjusting system used for the autopilot must, based on the flight conditions, change its parameters so that, despite these changes, keep the required quality of work.
Take, for example, such an indicator of the surrounding conditions as the temperature. The flight will have to measure the temperature of those sections of the spacecraft, which are most susceptible to heating, for example, at the entrance to the dense layers of the atmosphere. According to the results of these measurements, the system should adjust the trajectory so that the ship does not hit the area where it is waiting for excessive heating.
To better understand the principle of self-adjusting regulation by plane, you can refer to the action of the pilot in flight. Having a control knob, he slightly perturbs the flight of the aircraft, which allows it to feel the properties of the machine and reach the optimal (best) control, despite changing the properties of the aircraft when the height is set or change the flight speed.
Consider one of the samples of self-adjusting autopilot, applied, in particular, on the American fighter (Fig. 17). The main part of the autopilot is a multivibrator - an electrical oscillation generator, the form of which is different from sinusoidal. It performs the functions of a high-speed relay. If the aircraft saves the specified position, the multivibrator, switching to one of two stable states, produces short electrical pulses opposite to polarity and equal in power. The frequency of them ranges from 4 to 6 Hz. These pulses are summarized to the steering typewriter, and it naturally performs oscillations near the neutral position. The average position of the steering wheel remains constant, although it itself and moves 0.1 ° at the frequency of pulses. The plane also has established oscillations, completely invisible for the pilot.Fig. 17. Scheme of self-adjusting autopilot
With a change in the position of the aircraft, the signal of the corresponding gyroscope will force the multivibrator to linger in one stable position longer than in the other. So, the impulses of one polarity will act on the steering machine for a longer period than the pulses of the opposite polarity. A steering wheel will be rotated accordingly, and the plane returns to the specified position.
And why is the ideal model? The mismatch signal enters the multivibrator not only from the gyroscope, but also from this model. It represents something like a filter and imitates the behavior of the perfect aircraft in response to certain indignations. So, the scheme with this model "Watch", as the real aircraft returns to the original position. If he behaves like an ideal aircraft, there will be no signal from the model. If there is a difference, for example, between the angular velocities of the real aircraft and the ideal model, the multivibrator will receive the corresponding signal and will force the drive to change the average position of the steering wheel.
And what does an automatic amplitude modulator do? It continuously controls the efficiency of the plane steering and automatically compensates for the effect of height and flight speed for their effectiveness. It is known that for
Different aircraft The efficiency of the steering wheel is reduced in different ways with an increase in speed, height and decrease in air density. For example, this automatic modulator so changes the value of the rejection of the steering wheel (amplitude) so that the effect of the height does not affect their efficiency. At the same time, it copes with his task, not even "knowing" in advance the specific characteristics of this aircraft.
The self-adjusting autopilot, according to foreign specialists, has many advantages over usual. It is not only that due to its application it is possible to speed up the development of automatic control for new types of aircraft and rockets and sharply reduce the flight tests that are required to match the characteristics of the conventional control system and the new aircraft or projectile. But the case is that the self-adjusting autopilot is simpler and reliable. Its dimensions and weight of 50 percent are less, and reliability is twice as high as the usual.
When developing different types and weapons systems abroad, their physical high-speed models are also created. In such a model "Enter" malfunctions characteristic of real objects. Special system produces a solution to solve, that is, it moves through with a huge speed possible ways to eliminate harmful influences, faults to obtain the desired mode. It takes the most acceptable solution and gives it to use in a real object.
The new direction in the use of self-adjusting systems is the creation of automatic controllers in aviation and rocket technology. They are intended to automate the processes of checking all types of complex aircraft equipment and rocket, including radar and navigation equipment, hydraulic and pneumatic devices, guidance means. Designers of electronic calibration devices, as in creating other automata, began with the analysis of human actions that perform control over the state of the aircraft or projectile.
What does the technician check do? He, remembering the requirements of the operating instructions, transfers the sequentially switches to the working position, removes the instrument readings and is checked with them as specified. In case of data discharge, it fixes a malfunction and must decide what to do to lead the technique in a good condition. It checks all the elements and establishes which resistance, capacitor or lamp is the culprit of the abnormal operation of the electrical circuit.
The performance of the same functions can be assigned to the machine. Abroad, created, for example, an automatic device, which, guided by the program recorded on the tape, switches to the test equipment and the instrument readings with the instructions required. After that, a solution signal is issued, indicating whether the parameter has a test under permissible limits. If the hardware includes, you need a long time to warm up, the machine will turn on it and returns to it when it enters the operating mode.
To search for a faulty element, the machine follows the "logic". It produces a combination of several measurements. To do this, the machine provides a "memory" element. He "remembers" one or a number of intermediate solutions compares them to find the cause of the fault.
The created verification system is not designed to detect a separate faulty resistance or lamp. This system detects a malfunction to a small block that is easy to replace in a conventional airfield. As soon as the malfunction is detected, the machine chooses one of its 500 microfilms and designs it on the screen, where the equipment repair is given. At the same time, the machine chooses a special card and gives it to the operator. The film and the card indicate the element failed, the time required to eliminate the fault, instruments and tools that need to be used, which and how to do, etc. Thus, the automatic high-speed device can not only find a malfunction, but also give specialists Information that otherwise would have to look for in various instructions, descriptions and schemes.
Currently, according to foreign press, electronic checks are developed for both specific equipment samples and universal. There is, for example, a machine for detecting faults in a very complex bomber-navigation system. Installations have been created to verify the correct operation of the guidance systems of managed shells.
About the performance of a universal system can be judged by the operation of a machine, designed to test 1,200 different power supply on aircraft. The check of each such scheme it operates in less than one minute.
Another automatic checking was created for testing radio electronic equipment of the Bombarder of the American Naval Forces. By informing this installation, the Avayishn PEC magazine indicates that it allows for four hours to check the entire complex of equipment of the bombarder, including navigation devices of bombing, communications and radar, identification and flight control systems, radar altimeter, calculating devices and power supplies . It is indicated that with the help of ordinary funds, such an inspection required with a large number of at least 35 hours.
The installation consists of three blocks placed on trolleys. The main unit includes a programming device, a system of self-testing of the installation that stops its operation when an internal malfunction occurs, measurement devices of various characteristics, indicator and recording devices. In the other two blocks, it contains generators that imitate signals that occur in the chains of the radio electronic equipment of the aircraft in flight.
Universal systems have been developed to automatically check the readiness of manageable shells to start. The block diagram of such a system is shown in Fig. 18.Fig. 18. Block diagram of the generalized automatic check system
How does this system work? Check occurs according to a predetermined program, according to which from the program register signals enter the converter. From there in the form of impulses, they are summing up to the test object. Signals from excitation generators include checked chains. Response signals fall into the reverse signal converter and the test is automatically terminated. Troubleshooting begins.
In one of the samples of verification equipment, the test program is recorded on a magnetic tape. Entering signals is carried out by a high-speed device that perceives with a magnetic tape of 400 signals per second. A storage device is made in the form of a magnetic drum and has a capacity of 500,000 units of information. The indicator of the reliability of the test result is applied, which in the form of a double-digit number (from 0 to 98) shows how long the deviation of the measurement from the permissible value is allowed. The check data is displayed visually on the perforated tape or in the form of tables. The use of an automatic system allows you to check for one minute, which was usually required for several hours.
High-speed automatic control devices check the increasing amount of diverse aviation and rocket technology. It is created, for example, the equipment in relation to various types of aviation radio communication and radio navigation equipment, fire management systems and motors, identification systems, noise-protective devices and others.Fig. 19. Automatic Aviation Test Station Placed in Trailer
In fig. 19 shows an automatic test unit placed in the trailer. One of the most difficult problems is considered to develop systems capable of comparing signals changing over time, and take into account the permissible deviations, also depending on time. It is no less difficult to create devices that allow without the participation of people to check the hydraulic and pneumatic aircraft systems and, moreover, check their engines in rest.
Developing abroad automatic control systems in aviation and rocket technology indicates that automation based on the use of the achievements of radio electronics and other areas of science and technology covers not only the field of combat use of the means of armed struggle, but also their preparation for battle.
However, this does not mean eliminating people from participating in the service and use of military equipment and weapons. The number of people involved in the maintenance of equipment is definitely declining. But a person still turns out to be necessary as the creator of cars and a commander who has enormous knowledge and experience capable of using the capabilities of the machine. From the preparation and qualities of a person will ultimately depend on the success in battle.
The description of the principle of operation and the device of electronic computing machines is currently devoted to a huge number of books and brochures. We will not repeat their contents, we will only remind that the general scheme of the electronic computing machine includes such indispensable components as devices for training and punching punctuents on which the program of operation of the machines, an introductory device, operational and long-term "memory", an arithmetic device can be applied , Device and control panel, output and printing device (Fig. 20).Fig. twenty. Main parts of electronic computing machine
The main carrier of the signal in the e-machine, as is known, electrical current. It serves here in the form of impulses that have a very small duration (about a billion dollars of a second). Since electronic lamps or semiconductors are used in the machine diagram, which have a very minor inertia, the time of the diagram reaction is very small, hundreds of thousands of less than that of mechanical and electromechanical devices. All this determines the high speed of the machine. There are more than once published numbers speaking its phenomenal performance.
The electronic machine is capable of making calculations at a huge speed - the order of millions of arithmetic operations per second with 10-15-bit numbers. In a few minutes of work, it will make more than the calculator for his entire life. At the same time, the labor of many computers is not easy, but fundamentally new opportunities arise. The machine is capable of performing not only mathematical operations of a huge volume and range, but also logical operations.
But are the electronic computing machines that biionics do not need in this area? No, this is not impossible to say, and the results of research scientists studying and receiving information in a living organism, and in particular the work of the nervous system and the brain, are very valuable.
The results of research in the field of bionics have already made themselves to know when developing programs for electronic computing machines. Based on the observations of how a person comes to solving special tasks, and according to this, the so-called Eurestical program was created, simulating this process in humans. It comes from the euristest method of finding the truth by setting the leading issues. When using such a program, the machine successfully proved 38 out of 52 theorems.
We now turn to the information transfer process. We have already said that the signal is a voltage pulse. The numbers in it are recorded in a binary system in which two is the basis of the number. Any number is written by a combination of zeros and units. In tab. 3 is given a comparison of the recording of numbers in decimal and binary number systems.
Zero and unit means either the absence or the presence of an electrical voltage pulse. In the transmission of these pulses and consists of an elementary act of an electronic machine. At the entrance of the machine, a chain of so-called triggers is used. The essence of their device is that they contain two electronic lamps included in such a way that the system has only two stable states: in the absence of current in one lamp and in the absence of current to another. The first state can be considered appropriate zero, the second one. Taking a chain of triggers, you can "burn" the number in the binary system, such a chain is called the register. If the register already records the number and another one is sent to it, then you can get the amount of them. A device that serves for this purpose is called adder. Numbers are transmitted from one node machine to another by wires in the form of electrical pulses.
Without going into the details of the work of the machine, we turn to what is aware of the transfer of information in the nervous system. First, we will show the undoubted superiority of the devices of this kind in living organisms before technical. Specialists somehow decided to compare coding and bandwidth (frequency band transmitted without distortion) of the brain and television system. To assess these characteristics, a usual dream took. Evaluating the number of personnel and elements, as is usually done against telecast, experts received an astronomical amount for bandwidth 10twenty
Hz. Since the upper boundary of the strip in physiological processes is not higher than 100 Hz, and the number of parallel channels cannot exceed 109
It is assumed that a method for encoding information in the brain in a huge number of times more economical than in modern television. As I would enrich the technique, including electronic counting automation, the attenuation of this coding method.What are signals transmitting different information in a living organism? As mentioned above, it is impulses of nervous excitement.
More precisely, the transfer of irritation on the nerve fiber is an electrochemical process that occurs due to the energy accumulated in the fiber itself. The energy consumed by the nerve on the pulse is replenished later, during the power of the nerve. All messages are transmitted along the nerve in the binary alphabet: either the nerve is alone or excited. On varying degrees of excitation, there is an increase in the frequency of the impulses. Thus, when transmitting non-nervous messages, we are dealing with a frequency-pulse modulation that has recently been widespread in the communication technique.
The role of amplifiers of incoming signals in the nervous system for their further transmission is playedNeurons
. They are now attracting close attention of scientists.Fig. 21.
Schematic representation of neuron
Neuron contains cell body (Fig. 21). Tree processes -Dendriti
- Entries for which irritation impulses are summed up to the body of the crate. Output servesAkson
What are the size of the neuron? Its body has dimensions less than 0.1 mm. The length of dendrites is from the fraction of a millimeter to tens of centimeters, their diameter is around the hundredth of the lobe of the millimeter. The number of processes can reach several dozen and even hundreds. Axons can be a length of a millimeter to one and a half meters.
In the transmission of nerve fibers of excitation, the role is greatSinapsov
, that is, excitation transition places from one nervous cell to another. Synapses are excited only in one direction, from the end of the axon of one neuron to the dendrites and the cellular body of another neuron. Therefore, the fibers are generally carried out impulses in only one direction: either from the center to the periphery, or from the periphery to the center (centripetric nerves).Fig. 22.
Presenas neurons (a) and post-onappecovy neurons (B)
In fig. 22 are depictedPresenas
neurons indicated by the letter A, andPOSLAINAPSY
Neurons - V. Synaps can be from one to several hundred. There are especially many of the motor neurons of the spinal cord. They transmit impulses related to the control of body movements.
In the human brain, which scientists are particularly persistently trying to simulate, there are 10-15 billion neurons. But it is not only a matter of quantity, but in their exceptional complexity and variety of functions.
"Modern science," the well-known Soviet scientist P. K. Anokhin in one of the articles, "clearly showed that the nervous cell itself and her shell are a whole world of diverse in chemical and physiological formations.
The thinnest methods of research E through the help of electronic devices was established that hundreds and sometimes thousands of contacts that each nervous cell has only the beginning of that surprising process at the molecular level, allowing the body in the size of 20 thousandths of millimeter to obtain an infinite number of synthetic processes. - "Personal share" of cell participation in the activities of a whole brain. "
Thus, the nervous cell is unlikely to be considered as an elementary detail: this, conventionally speaking, already "node" "Machine-brain" with a complex complex of functions reflecting various types of activities of the body. From here you can understand how difficult to artificially reproduce such a cell of the brain.
Works on the creation of an analogue of a neuron are devoted to the main part of the research in the field of bionics abroad. Neuron, as already noted, a converter with binary output, that is, with the absence or presence of a signal. An exciting or inhibitory impulse can be supplied to the neuron of the biological organism. The first calls the "trigger" of the neuron if the value of the energy accumulated by the neuron for a certain period of time will exceed some, as they say the threshold value. If the amplitude of the pulse is small, neuron will not "work". But if several weak signals act consistently, the energy of which in total exceeds the threshold value, then the neuron "triggers". This means that it has the property of temporary and spatial summation. At the outlet of the neuron, pulses of standard magnitude and duration are formed.
Sequential or temporary summation refer to such an excitation of a neuron when irritations smaller thresholds are followed by sufficiently short periods of time. Spatial summation consists in simultaneously summing up two or more synapses of individual irritations, weaker than threshold values. In sum, they can cause neuron excitation.
Schematically, you can portray the neuron model as shown in Fig. 23. She has many inputs where the signals are received.1
and so on. They act through synaptic contacts s1
etc. In these contacts there is a delay in the incoming signal at a time during which a special substance is excreted that increases the excitability of the neuron and facilitating the cell reaction to the subsequent impulses.Fig. 23. Scheme of model of Neuron
The impact on the body of the neuron is determined by the amount of impacts from all inputs and signals that have been acting before. The triggering of the neuron occurs if the effect exceeds the threshold value K. Then the standard signal R. is received to the neuron output.
It is interesting that immediately after the exposure of the exciting pulse, the threshold level of neuron increases sharply to infinity. So, no newly coming signal will make it "to work". Such a state is usually preserved for several milliseconds. The threshold level is then reduced.
As for the braking impulse, it is the forbidden signal that makes it impossible to "trigger" the neuron from the pulses of other inputs.
In a number of foreign countries, intensive works on artificial reproduction of neurons are underway. In the United States, for example, a number of research institutions, educational institutions and firms participate in this work. In the simplest counterparts of neuron use only one semiconductor device. In more complex models take several semiconductor devices.
An analogue of a neuron containing four semiconductor instruments has characteristics close to their biological sobrase. This analogue can excite up to 100 other devices without a significant change in the shape and the magnitude of the output signal. The proposed design was used to reproduce the function of the eye, where selenium-cadmium photoresistance were used as a sensitive element (photocells whose resistance changes under the influence of visible light).
A large effect gave a compound of semiconductor devices on the principle of synaptic compounds in the nerve tissues. It was possible to imitate the effect of these tissues, as a kind of filters that transmit only certain information.
To simulate neurons, magnetic ferrite cores are used, schemes of special generators (multivibrators) and other devices.
The neuron model with a multivibrator is shown in Fig. 24. Semiconductor devices t play the main role2
. In a steady state t2
locked because the negative voltage is submitted to it6
. Semiconductor device T.3
, on the contrary, is in the separation state. In this case, it turns out that the potential at a point is a positive (+ 20 V), and at the point B is also positive, but lower in size.Fig. 24. Neuron model using multivibrator on semiconductors
If the semiconductor device t occurs2
and locking T.3
, the potential of the point A sharply decreases, and the potential of the point B increases. As a result of this, a positive voltage pulse is supplied to the excitation yield, and on the output of the braking is negative. The pulse duration depends on the choice of resistance values Rm
and capacitance capacitor withm
. Changing the magnitude of the containers with2
You can adjust the system of returning the system to a steady state. The value of the negative voltage supplied to the semiconductor device T2
With resistance R.6
The threshold value of the activation of the neuron is determined.
Is it possible in this scheme a temporary and spatial summation characteristic of neuron? Yes, possibly. For this purpose, the input chains containing R are served1
and semiconductor device t1
. Spatial summation is simulated by the feeding of signals into parallel inputs, temporary - the accumulation of energy in the condenser with1
. The pulses to the inlet of the neuron analogue were fed a certain amplitude and a duration of one millisecond. They were accidentally distributed over time. The output was obtained a standard signal with a voltage of 15 V and the same durability as the input signal.
Such a diagram allows you to reproduce many characteristics of the neuron, besides its adaptation ability, that is, changes in the trigger threshold depending on the magnitude of the input signals.
The model of one of the neuron samples on the magnetic element is shown in Fig. 25. The current of the first winding of the multi-member core creates the main flow F, splitting into two streams F1
Where there are holes (shown at the bottom of the picture). The core is magnetized to saturation.Fig. 25 Neuron model on magnetic element
In the second winding comes current input signals. If in the amount they are greater than some threshold, then in the outer parts of the core, where there are holes, a change in the direction of the magnetic flux F2
The third winding is powered by alternating current, the fourth is the output of the neuron model. How does the signal go to the exit? When there is no signal in the second winding, the fourth does not induce E. s., Since in one half-period, the magnetotrifying force will coincide with the stream1
, in another half-period - with stream f2
. The core is saturated, and the increase in the flow will not be neither in any other period. The other thing is when the signal is received on the second winding. Then F.1
coincide in the direction. And although in one half-period, they will not be able to increase, but they will decrease into another half-period. And any change in the magnetic field is associated with the guidance in the conductor in this field, the electromotive force. This occurs the output signal in the fourth winding.
When simulating complex nervous bonds, other holes of the magnetic core can be used.
What value does all this have for technology? It turns out, very large. Among other tasks of improving electronic machines, the study of the process of information transfer to the neurons makes it possible to raise the question of ensuring the high reliability of these machines. It is known that when solving some tasks, the electronic computing machine has to be done, for example, more than ten million multiplications. Since the machine is used in the machine, it will multiply thirty-digit numbers to each other. All have to do 10ten
Elementary acts. So that these calculations gave an errorless result, the probability of error should be less than 10-ten
. To ensure such a position even with the most advanced radio electronic tools (transistors, ferrites, etc.) is not yet possible. It can always be in the scheme one unreliable item, which will cause an error. How to get out of this position? How to create a reliable car from insufficiently reliable sometimes details?
And scientists remembered the mechanism for transferring information to neurons. Specialists reasoned. Separate machine items can make two independent errors from each other: do not submit an impulse when it is required, and submit it when it is not needed. Therefore, it is desirable to have a device that would be engaged in the restoration of the initial data. This device must be connected to a plurality of input circuits of switching organs. Such a scheme is nothing but to reproduce the information transfer process with neurons. As we have seen from fig. 22, in-neurons synapses are the endings of the accidentally linked side transfers of A-neurons.
It was noted above that neuron with a very high probability is excited only when the pulses receive a certain number of synapses. Hence the conclusion: you can not have one, but several, for example, three, parallel working machines. They are connected to the mixer, where at least two of the three computation results are established, and further operations are based on the coincided results. So "most votes" establishes, to consider reliable for further work. In this way, you can build machines in which the probability of error can be sharply reduced.
The mixer in this case performs the functions of the neuron. Therefore, scientists are now actively investigating the question of how auto machines can be built from neurons. The neurons themselves are all deeper. The theory of neural machines opens up ample opportunities to improve electronic computing machines, increasing their reliability, improve switching, improving their "memory" to dozens of times. It is characteristic that at the first symposium in the United States in Bionics, most reports were devoted to reproducing the functions of nerve cells (neurons), self-learning and self-proclaimed machines. In the US, a number of firms develop electrical analogues of neurons in order to collect schemes that have a high speed of information processing and the "self-organization".
Now about the "memory" of electronic computing machines. Above, in fig. 20, we are among the indispensable parts of the machine included operational and long-term "memory". Such a separation of "memory" occurs because it is technically difficult in a single device to realize the requirements of speed and high capacity. Therefore, the operational storage device has a small capacity, but provides fast recording and evaluate. In a long-term storage device, more time is required for reading, but its capacity is very high.
What are the technical devices of "memory"?
The process of "memorization" may be a record of binary numbers on a magnetic tape or a drum coated with a magnetic ribbon. Since the number in the binary system is encoded 1 and 0, that is, the presence or absence of an electrical voltage pulse, then when the current is passed through the coil with a core, located near the ribbon or drum, they are magnetized and stored the impulse. You can fix pulses in the form of electrical charges on the dielectric. This dielectric can serve as a screen of an electron beam tube, similar to those used in ordinary TVs. Point charges formed by a bunch of electrons denote units of numbers and stored for quite a long time.
There is also an ultrasonic "memorization" system - delay lines. They contain a tube filled with liquid (often mercury). The voltage is applied to the piezoelectric material located in contact with the tube. Under the action of voltage in the piezoelectric material, a mechanical push occurs, which causes an ultrasonic wave in the liquid. It moves from one end of the tube to another, where there is an output plate from a piezoelectric material. It converts ultrasound again into an electric impulse. The time of the passage of the ultrasonic wave (and it moves quite slowly) and there is a pulse delay time. Since the fluid continues its oscillations and further, the "memorization" time can be many times large than the period of the primary motion of the wave.
Other "memorization" methods can also be applied, for example, with the help of ferrite cores, etc.
In order not to confuse the memorable numbers, they are assigned their accurate addresses in the e-machine. If they are recorded on the screen of the electron beam tube, the address of the number is determined by the number of the tube, strings and column. In the case of a magnetic record, the address is the number of the magnetic tape and the track on it. Similarly, numbers are located on the numbers of the lines of the delay and impulse, fluctuating in them.
Of course, special switching devices are applied to find the address. Faster it is possible to find the number on the screen of the electron beam tube, for this it is enough to specify the desired potential system controlling the beam. The longest has to expect the approach of the desired number when recording Pa Magnetic tape.
We describe the action of the memory of the e-machine with an ultrasonic delay line. The numbers, "memorized" in this way, are continuously circulated in a closed ring. The passage of numbers is recorded by the pulse counter. If you need to consider the number, the address of the place is filed to the register, from where it must be taken. The special device "monitors" to match the numbers in the counter and in the address register, only then the number is passed through the output channels. The recording also indicates the address of the place where the new number should be recorded, and the old number is "forgotten".
We have described in detail the circulation of "memory" in the diagram with the delay line because in it, on the assumptions of specialists, much in common with the action of human memory. It is believed that the memory in humans is carried out by circulating the nervous excitation by a closed path consisting of nerve fibers and cells. Adherents of these views as if already discovered closed loop-like neural structures in the nerve receptor tissues.
Hungarian scientist doctor of technical sciences is less likely to Taryan, a lot of neural automation issues, it claims that if it would build a "neural network" from artificial neurons, it would give the "memory" of exceptional quality. She would have exceeded everything in many orders of magnitude all that can be applied in modern counting machines.
But there is another point of view on the mechanism of action of the person's memory: as if we are obliged to the properties of protein molecules available in cells. It changes the order of the atoms, which gives a huge number of states characterized by chemical properties and capable of manifest in physiological functions of the cell. The hypothesis that the basis of memory is the restructuring of the atoms of protein molecules, is valuable in that it explains the presence of memory in the simplest organisms, which does not assume the memory of both the circulation of nervous excitation.
A person chooses from his memory information on association with images of real objects. Analogies with this process are based associative storage devices. In these devices, the data search is made not just at the address, but according to the signs of the information itself. A number of types of associative memorable devices have already been created, where signs of information are recorded on perforated maps, magnetic elements, etc. Further improvement of such devices will bring them to bring them to the most remarkable storage mechanism - human memory.
Bionics data allow not only to improve the device parts and organizational principles of electronic accounting automation, but also create machines that would behave more biologically, that is, there were "intelligent" than our modern cars.
In the US, a group of specialists led by Dr. Frank Rosenblate is being developed by a new theory, based on which you can create an electronic device that reproduces the brain activity and largely explains the process of human memory. Using this theory, it was possible to construct an e-machine model, which, according to the authors, is able to classify, perceive and symbolically depict the surrounding conditions, and also take into account completely new and unforeseen changes in the environment and do it without the operator intervention.
The electronic computing machine has become familiar to us works, as is known, strictly according to the program drawn up by a person, and it is necessary to arise the need for an unforeseen decision as it stops. The new device has its own "bodies" of the perception of sound, lights similar to the human senses. At the heart of the "organs" of perceptions lie well-known electronic and electromagnetic devices. Of course, they are not able to fully fulfill what the human senses do, but allow you to significantly expand the circle of information that is usually perceived by the machine.
By the nature of the work, the new car is greater than any other, approaching the functions of the brain. It perceives information, classifies it and displays the concept. Most of the "memory" elements in it are connected random, as is the brain. Physiologists are known to believe that the compounds between associations, or "thinking", the cells of the brain are organized, apparently, by chance. Upon receipt of information in the new machine, it is not an individual element in which a certain discharge of information accumulates, and at the same time most elements.
A group led by the RosenBlat thus proceeded primarily from the fact that the memory functions are randomly distributed in the association elements. So memorial cells of the machine are distributed randomly. But their compounds are definitely not to change arbitrarily in the process of its work. Preparing the car capable of perceiving the phenomena of reality, scientists believed that any thoughtful body was made able to understand the surrounding situation in the learning process and accumulation of experience, and does not receive this property inheritance. Therefore, all storage cells before the inclusion and the beginning of "training" were completely neutral.
In fig. 26 shows the processes of perceiving visual impressions of A - man and B - new machine calledPercepton
(From the word "perception" - perception).Fig. 26. Processes of perception of visual impressions: a man (assumption); b - electronic computing machine - perceptor Fig. 27. The main parts of the electronic computing machine - Percepton
Fig. 27 Plays the main parts of this car involved in the reproduction of visual images. "To see" a lens helps her focusing on the "retina" of 400 miniature photocells. Each such image excites a number of photocells, this excitation is transmitted to the association cells, the total number of which reaches 512. The mark in the "memory" remains due to the fact that the storage elements that guide the signal to turn on the reactive devices can enhance it. However, facing a new impression, a car, like a person, first makes mistakes. But the tracks in "memory" are gradually fixed, and according to the theory of probabilities, it is possible to ensure that certain excites entail the same reaction. This means that the car has acquired a certain "concept" in relation to the conditions surrounding it. It is practically necessary to make 15 attempts, after which the car gives 100 percent of the correct answers.
The operator can "teach" the car to come to the desired conclusions. This is facilitated by the presence of feedback. From reacting devices, feedback signals come to storage cells that caused their inclusion. These signals increase the "power" of storage cells, that is, it seems to be a "remuneration" for the group that caused reacting devices to the action.
The car has manual control to develop the necessary concepts. For the correct answer, the machine is "rewarded" (the effectiveness of the corresponding cells) and "punishes" for an error (their effectiveness is reduced).
It should be noted that the "teach" new-Machin Mathematics is as difficult as a person. Therefore, the electronic computing machine in the account performance has the same advantage over the perceptron, as before the person.
What really "learned" the simplest model of the new car? Without any help person, it accurately determined the location of the geometric figures to the right and to the left of its "field of view". She turned out to be able to "learn" to distinguish the letters of the alphabet. It is assumed that the perceptor will be able to recognize human speech and turn it into signals, managing, let's say, lettering. The machine is able to make translations from one language to another, selection of literature, view patents. In a military case, it is advisable to use its use in the guidance of managed shells, aircraft. Here it can make it much easier to make the decision-making process, which is now fully entrusted to people. It is considered to be likely to apply the machines of a new type for air intake, as they are able to report unforeseen data, detect changes in the situation, etc.
When evaluating the ability of the machine to recognize the pictures, it was "shown" a large number of photographs of ships in the sea, rocket plants, airplanes. It turned out that the correct "trained" machine is able to distinguish between single targets, as well as objects that are surrounded by others in the form of objects. For example, already at the first model of the machine, the correctness of the recognition of hangars and caponies reached 100 percent, the aircraft in Caponier is 92 percent, aircraft outside the shelter - 94 percent.
It is not by chance that the US Navy became interested in creating a sample of a car with thousand storage cells. It is assumed that such a car will not exceed the size of the usual table. True, while memorizing cells are very complex and roads. Therefore, the most importantly, the designers pay the development of compact, inexpensive and reliable storage cells. According to the latest posts, the second perceptron sample has already been built. It contains 20 times more memory elements and a more complex relationship scheme than the first model. The American military intends to use this advanced percepton in the near future to automatically decipher the results of air intake - aerial photographs and identifying goals for them.
With the use of artificial neurons, cars are already created with recognition ability, even more perfect than the first perceptons. Already created, for example, a machine on a variety of electronic neuron -Arthrone
. This electronic neuron is more complicated by other analogues. It has 16 states and delay property. This is an extremely sensitive element having two inputs and one output. Input and output signals have a digital form. The difference of the machine on arthrons from the first perceptons is that the paths of passing the signal between sensitive elements and arthrons change continuously randomly, while in the process of "learning" the optimal paths will be found. But even after "learning", the car easily returns to the stage of random signal passage.
The main mechanism with which such a machine is learning "is four high-speed switches. They compare the received signal with the threshold level, determine, open the switch or leave closed. In the first case, the signal to the arthrone does not pass, in the second - passes. The feedback scheme and here provides "encouragement" or "punishment", reducing or increasing the switcher threshold level.
Machine on arthrons, according to foreign printing, can be used to automatically control unmanned space aircraft, will contribute to the creation of high-speed command vehicles for the headquarters of military units that make it easier for solutions to the commander. The machine can successfully manage equipment operating under dangerous conditions.
The printing is also reported on the creation of another neuron analog for logic devices. It -neuristor
. It can perform all logical operations of existing electronic computing machines and even some of the functions that they have yet to do not say. According to the diagram, this is a channel containing a thermistor strip and distributed container. They distribute signals - electrical discharges passing with constant speed and amplitude. After the discharge, the device becomes immunity for some time and does not support discharges. After some period, he restores performance. Logic devices on neuristrators are characteristic of the fact that the device and connecting wires are one integer.
One foreign firm suggested a self-programming machine that independently chooses the optimal approach to solving the problem. It is designed to recognize the signals of the hydrolyator.
Before use, the machine is "trained." On the perforated ribbon of the memory block, signals of the hydrolector and the echo signal created by the ship are written. If the machine confuses something, the comparison process is repeated until it gives the correct answer. "Trained" in this way the machine can analyze underwater location signals better than the operator.
One of the American firms built a bionic learning machine for a quick identification and classification of three-dimensional objects having a shape of a ball, cube, pyramids and an ellipsoid. This quality, according to US specialists, is very valuable when viewing, analyzing, selecting photos on reconnaissance satellites before transferring them to Earth. And not only in this case, but also when recognizing the starts of the launch of shells or shells themselves from the side of aircraft or satellites, as well as the detection of missile warheads among false goals.
Such a bionic machine consists of a lens, 400 photocells, photocelling signal amplifiers, an associative memory block, consisting of 400 simple logic schemes, response logic devices and digital logic devices indicating the form of the observed object. The output of each amplifier is connected (by random law) with the inputs of nine logic circuits of the memory block.
How does such a bionic machine work? When the optical image is designed for the photocells, the signals from them after the amplification go into logic circuits of associative "memory", from there to two response logical devices. Here is the process of learning the car. At the input of the response devices, the signals are "weighed", that is, depending on whether or not, the presence of this signal is properly recognized, it is either enhanced or weakened. This is achieved due to the decrease in the resistance at the input of response logic circuits.
Of the neurons models create entire networks that are intended to simulate certain functions of the nervous system. Networks are constructed, changing their parameters in accordance with the changes in the nature of the irritation, as well as a network intended for memorizing data and capable of "learning".
In the second symposium in Bionics it was reported that a studying machine on a neural network of 102 memistors was created in the USA.Memistors
- These are liquid elements, structurally decorated in the form of small plastic vessels in one-third of the cubic centimeter. The vessels are filled with electrolyte and have electrodes. The effect of elements is based on the resistance change from 3 to 100 ohms. The network of such memistor imitates the work of the human visual body when recognizing images. On the basis of this car, it is assumed to create a device for solving complex navigation problems, weather predictions, etc.
The United States also develops a machine designed to recognize speech and print text with voice. Specialists also engage in the problem of converting a set of numbers into a human voice recorded on a magnetic tape. This voice is introduced into the electronic computing machine, and it produces mathematical analysis of sounds. And then from the numbers received again recreated (synthesized), human speech is also recorded on a magnetic film. Such analysis and synthesis of speech will be very valuable for the narrowing of communication channels.
Of great importance for communication in special cases of combat use of military equipment, such as aircraft, will have the transformation of the speech spectrum of frequencies into mechanical oscillations. These mechanical oscillations will be perceived not in the ear, and human skin.
The fact is that in the flying plane, the noise interferes with the reception of sound signals by hearing organs. Skin susceptible to frequencies, nine times less than frequencies perceived by the ear (1000-4000 Hz). Therefore, when we transformed sound frequencies into mechanical oscillations, the operators could determine some sounds using the fingers located on the vibrator. In addition to reducing the effect of noise, this transmission has a greater secrecy.
Research in the field of trained and self-learning machines is carried out in the USSR. As the famous Soviet scientist V. M. Glushkov said in one of his performances, in the computing center of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (now it is called the Cybernetics Institute) the electronic car "trained" the meaning of phrases in Russian. The program has been provided for this: the machine is reported by a number of meaningful phrases; Then, in the process of checking, it correctly sorted meaningful phrases from meaningless, and it did not only for those phrases that she learned in the learning process, but also for strangers phrases.
When modeling on the machine of the process of "learning", the meaning of phrases in Russian could be imitated by various types of "training" - from naked cravings to a tenderness to hasty generalizations and irrepressible fantasy.
One of the staff of the Institute of Automation and Telemechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was put forward by the hypothesis of compactness, allowing to explain the learning process and artificially reproduce it. Currently, compactness hypothesis is checked for animals.
To understand the meaning of the compactness hypothesis, imagine a plane divided into cells and completed "P" -PhotosElements that imitate "receivers" of light irritation-receptors (Fig. 28, left).Fig. 28. Scheme of the process of "learning" of machines identifying the letter A
If an image is designed for this kinda photocopy, then quite certain photocells are excited. The condition of the entire photo wall can be characterized by one point, as they say, in the receptor space (Fig. 28, right). This point is the vertex of a single cube. So, the letter A will correspond depending on the writing of one group of points, the letter B is another group of points in the receptor space. Scientists suggest that the human brain in some ways are formed by areas in the receptor space corresponding to one or another image.
The compactness hypothesis can be formulated as follows: a person perceives many different visual sensations as a single image, if a plurality of points that corresponds to this feeling, in the receptor space is in a sense to be a compact set. The task of "learning" of the machine, thus, is to carry out in the space of surfaces separating one region from the other, and this means the ability to distinguish images. In the process of "learning", the machine "remembers" the position of points corresponding to the letters A, B, etc. in the receptor space. As a result, when then the machine shows the letter, it determines where the point is characterized by the image shown, and depending on this "responds", which is the letter.
Based on this hypothesis, a program implemented on digital machines was developed. And it turned out that the machines are very easy to "learn" to recognize five digits: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 (due to the fact that the figure 4 is similar to the figure 1, it was not used in the first experiments).
In the course of training, the machine was shown 40 selected numbers and reported the conditional code, which numbers. Then they showed the remaining 160 options for each digit that were not seen before the machine. She had to recognize them. And it from 800 cases allowed only ... Four inaccuracies.
Behind the first successful experiments of Soviet scientists followed new ones. On a small educational material, the car "learned" to recognize all ten digits. Now the possibility of recognizing the machine of all letters of the alphabet and even portraits is studied.
Soviet scientists believe that in the near future the car will be able to train not only recognizing images, but also to train them more complex processes. Such cars in the future can replace a person when performing the most subtle operations. For example, they will be able to judge the sound of the working unit about its serviceability or listening to heartbeat, diagnose. It is interesting that the machines can be equal as the same, and then to specialize them, "teaching" to some kind of "craft".
The actual member of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR V. Glushkov claims, for example, that the electronic computing machine, treating some experimental material, can open some new law of nature, an absolutely unknown program compiler. Of course, it is more natural to say that the corresponding law is open with the machine with a programmer, but when the scientist opens something, the authorship does not apply to those who taught it.
Self-learning machines are the further development of systems with automatic adaptation, which was discussed in the previous chapter. Self-learning devices accumulate management experience and increase their "qualifications". At the same time, they are able to perform such functions that were not laid in them. It is about the fact that if the designer laid the ability to improve and learn in the car, then implementing this ability, the machine itself finds the best structure and laws of behavior that may be unexpected for the designer itself. In this way, the process of improving machine guns on the manner of living forms, which sulling the most remarkable results can be carried out.
In conclusion, I would like to once again emphasize the community of the laws of management in the technique and wildlife. This idea is the cornerstone of cybernetics. The study of management processes in living organisms is extremely important for the development of technology, especially automation.
Management, as a targeted impact, assumes the presence of a goal. Such a goal may be only in a living organism. Now, thanks to the creative genius of a person, automata appeared, in which targeted impacts are committed without direct participation of living organisms. The goal in these machines has invested their creator - a person.
The control process in the machine or living organism consists of three parts: studying the managed object, developing a management strategy, implement the selected strategy. Above we talked about trainees and self-learning machines: they can take on one of the management operations, namely the study of the managed object. The second part of the process is to develop a management strategy - can also be carried out by the automatic search systems. The third operation is to implement the adopted management strategy - is carried out by technical devices, the task of which is possible more quickly and more accurately set the selected modes of operation. It is important to ensure the greatest efficiency of management.
According to the specialists of the Institute of Automation and Telemechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, some management processes in living organisms proceed in accordance with the principles of optimal management. Therefore, employees of the Institute together with biologists and doctors check their assumptions on living facilities. The introduction of increasingly perfect machines does not diminish, but increases the role of a person in the application of modern technical means. He belongs to the kingdom of automation by right of the place of the commander who takes the final decision. This is particularly pronounced in a military business, where there is also a rapid implementation of automation and telemechanics.
In the light of the above, it is clear to understand more clearly why, in solving management tasks, not only the technical parties of the case are taken into account, but also psychological and physiological factors associated with the participation of a person in the management processes. Such work in the USSR is conducted by experts on automation in the Commonwealth with psychologists and physiologists.
The solution of these complex tasks is called Bionics. It is not by chance that one Soviet scientist figuratively called the automatic control of the wood, feeding the juices of current practical automation tasks, with a vertex leaving into the area of the subtlest problems of the highest nervous activity of a person. There is no doubt that the development of this fruitful area will make it possible to achieve new success in creating and improving the technique of the Communist society, which is necessary both for the heyday of the productive forces of the Motherland and to protect its safety from any encroachment from the outside.
1. N. Wiener. Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and car. M., ed. "Soviet radio", 1958.2. I. A. Poletayev. Signal. M, ed. "Soviet radio", 1958.3. V. A. Trapeznikov. Cybernetics and automatic control. Magazine "Nature", April 1962.4. S. A. Doga Novsky. Automatic self-adjusting systems. M., ed. "Knowledge", 1961.5. L. P. K R A Y Z M E R. Bionics. M., Gosnergoisdat, 1962.6. Less than Taryan. Cybernetics problems. Magazine "Nature", June 1959.7. Aviation Week, July 7, 1958.8. Missiles and Rockets, June 29 and July 6, 1959.9. Aviation Week, October 3, 1960.10. Electronic Design, September 14, 1960.11. Radio-Electronics, May 1960.12. ELECTRONICS, 23 September 1960.13. Life, August 28, 1961.14. Bionics Symposium, 1960, 1961.To download a book: NPBVI-Astashenkov-P_T_-CHTO-Takoe-Bionika-1963.djvu [1.65 MB] (Dropping: 63)
P. T. Astashenkivoyed Miscellaneous Minister of Defense of the USSRMoskva -1963
The name of the science "Bionics" is familiar to many - it meets more and more. However, to imagine exactly what it is, not all. So what is this direction?
The word "bionics" is formed from the Greek Bion - element of life, or living. In essence, this science is something border between biology and technology. It solves engineering tasks based on the analysis of the structure and life of organisms. This direction is closely connected immediately with several scientific trends, like physics, chemistry, biology, cybernetics and engineering (electronics, navigation, communications, marine case).
The idea of using knowledge of wildlife to solve various engineering tasks refers to authors Leonardo da Vinci . A vivid example of such an attempt to build an aircraft so that he waves with wings like birds.
With the development of technology, interest in wildlife even more intensified from the point of view of determining the generality of all things with engineering manipulations and works. Officially, the science of Bionics originated in 1960, when she was talking about at this context at the first symposium in Dyton (USA).
What does bionics study?
Among the main interests of Bionics are the study of the nervous system of man and animals, as well as modeling new cells (implies neurons and neural connections), which in the future can be used to improve the computing equipment and the development of new elements of technology. Also, this science is interested in the study of the senses and other human perception systems for the subsequent development of new sensors and systems for detecting objects. In addition, in Bionics, special attention is paid to the study of the principles of orientation, location and navigation in animals to introduce these principles in the technique. And the study of the biochemical features of people and animals pursue researchers practicing bionics to introduce these principles in the development of technology.
So, scientists admire the fact that systems of living beings miniature. For example, the elements of the nervous system in the amount of several million occupy a total of a couple of decimeters of the brain area. Naturally, hence the desire to recreate such a skillful system in the technique, which will give the advantage of people in engineering management. Interested in researchers and the economy of work - the human brain in the process of active work consumes only a few watts. According to experts, the study of the reliability of the nervous system will give them the key to the creation of high-quality techniques, which will be the most reliable as possible. All this and much more worries scientists.
Types of science
Scientists allocate several types of bionics:
- Biological, which is engaged in the study of biological processes in nature.
- Theoretical Bionics, which builds mathematical calculations and formulas based on this data.
- Technical Bionics, which uses these calculations and observations to solve various engineering tasks and creating equipment.
Based on the basic science, a separate direction is allocated - neurobionics. There are versions that this scientific direction has become the basis for the development of artificial intelligence.
Natural examples of biionk-based inventions
Experts note that the easiest and clear example is called hinges. The action based on the fact that one part of the design revolves around the other is used in marine seashells. They use it to manage their sinks so that you can open or close them if necessary.
Also all people are familiar with such a subject as tweezers. It is considered the natural analogue of it, the sharp and glue beak of the Veretnian. Even ordinary suction cups that are used as an attachment for various household appliances or paste on shoes of workers in the sink of high-rise windows, and those are borrowed from nature. Boots are equipped with such suckers, the legs of Quix, due to which it can be held securely on slippery leaves of plants. By the way, the suction cups are both at octopuses that use them for close contact with their victims.