Language is always directly connected with society. The history of the origin of words is closely intertwined with the life of the people, who speaks it.
Any people with his mentality affect all areas of the language: on the features of pronunciation of sounds, lexical wealth, on his grammatical system, etc.
Language is a complete and clear reflection of society. It is associated with the history of the people, with the peculiarities of life, the worldview, the perception of some phenomena, with the state device.
In this article, we invite you to get acquainted with East Slavic languages, learn their features and similarities, as well as read about their history.
Indo-Europeans and their language
Until our era has come, there was one Indo-European community in the world. All nations, including Slavs, lived in this community and felt perfectly well. They were united by the language, faith and, of course, the territory.
Soon, people moved to bronze products and were able to tame a horse, which provoked a wave of migration. These movements spread to new territories one language, which developed everywhere in different ways, taking on all influences. Now the inhabitants of these territories are not born, except for the general ancestor of their diamond - Indo-European Praävka.
Separation of Slavs.
The result of migration is the formation of new tribes. One of them was Praslavyansky tribe, which settled in Central and Eastern Europe.
This tribe existed long: until the VI century AD. Residents led their own way, engaged in trade, hunting, cattle breeding, agriculture.
Soon the Slavs became closely, because they constantly expanded the earth for their farms. Places for everyone lacked. This led to new movements, and the Slavs crashed into three groups (or branches) - Western, South and Eastern.
The largest community - Eastern Slavs. They settled on the Eastern European Plain to the VI century of our era.
Each group of Slavs began to share in turn on several tribes. The Eastern Slavs formed 15 principalities, each of which had their own land, the capital and chapter - Prince.
How did East Slavic languages appear? Refer to the story again.
After the migration of Indo-Europeans, Praslavyansky tribe appeared. It is not known exactly when this event occurred. Scientists cannot specify the exact date, only approximately be attributed to this phenomenon to the frontier of two ER.
Together with Praslavyansky tribe, a new language appeared. It existed as long as the Praslavyansky unity itself.
But the movement of the people and the beginning of class differences between people shake their integrity. The unity of Praslavan broke up, which means that there was a language.
So the eastern Slavs separated with their prausskiy talk. It is also called Ancient Slavic. By the way, this language began to be born in the 2nd century of our era, to the rupture of Praslavan ties.
East Slavic Languages
By the VII century, an era of ancient-resistant Slavic language went to a new stage, underwent various changes. This updated dialect is called East Slavic (Old Russian), from the name of which and the name of the whole group has come. After some time, the ancient Russian is divided into several independent adverbs.
What languages come in the East Slavonic Group? There are only three of them: Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian. All of them are "descendants" of East Slavic language.
Linguistics combines languages in families. The largest of which is Indo-European language family. East Slavic languages are a group inside this family. All dialects in the same family will be like something like. Take a look at the table:
|be (there)||Building (єt)||BE.||être (ETR)|
|cat||Kiska||Cat (Kat)||Chat (Sha)|
You can see the similarity of pronunciation, especially in such simple words, how to be Mother, Father, etc. These are basic words in our speech, so therefore their Indo-Europeans moved to new lands, and it was they who kept similarity.
It is believed that the East Slavonic group of languages is distributed only in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. However, this is not: these adverbs spread pretty far.
This group of languages spread to Asia in connection with the conquest campaigns of the Russian Empire.
Russian language is one of East Slavic languages. It officially spoke residents of the Russian Federation. In countries such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian - one of the state languages.
Russian language in the sixth place in popularity. People speak more than 250 million people all over the world. Of these, half owns spoken and written speech at a high level.
Russian At the same time, the National Language of the Russian Federation, international to communicate the peoples within Russia and one of the most common in the world.
Russian adverb is more excluding Russian words. However, over time, the world developed, new concepts appeared, phenomena, inventions, household items that appeared in Russia. Therefore, Russian speech did not avoid borrowing from other languages.
Thanks to the Emperor, Peter the Great, the rule in 17-18 centuries, in the Russian dialect a lot of borrowing from Dutch, French and German languages. And in the 20th century, Russian speech began to adopt the words from the English language. This happened in connection with the development of new technologies: computers, Internet, etc. Borrowing from English taking place so far, more often even in colloquial speech (google, Haip, MEM, etc.).
Russian language Praised Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov, Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, French philosopher Voltaire.
The second East Slavic language is Ukrainian. The inhabitants of Ukraine officially say on it. Since the XIX century, Ukrainians began migration to Western countries, such as Canada, USA, Australia, as well as on South American mainland - to Argentina and Brazil. Their language, accordingly, also spread to these territories.
In the world, 40 million people speak Ukrainian, and 85% of residents in Ukraine itself.
Ukrainian, as well as the rest of East Slavic, was formed on the basis of Old Russian. The literary speech was developed by Ivan Petrovich Kotlyarovsky and Taras Grigorievich Shevchenko.
Third East Slavic language - Belarusian. It is spoken by 7 million people - residents of Belarus, where two official languages are Belarusian and Russian. In 2009, only 53% of the population of this country indicated Belarusian as his own. Language is now in the status of vulnerability. This means that they speak mainly only at home.
In the Polish city of Hynjunvka and some Polish Gmines (minimum administrative units), such as Orly, Chizh and Narevka, Belarusian language is auxiliary. In other words, it serves to communicate between people who spell in different languages. As, for example, English is used to communicate between people around the world.
Traits of the similarities of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian languages
We learn what are the common features of East Slavic languages. Russian and Ukrainian have only three similarities. But the Ukrainian and Belarusian - twelve.
One of the indicative general traits of Belarusian and Ukrainian languages is that there is a charting case. In Russian adverbs, he also existed, but in the 11th century he began to die away.
In Russian and Ukrainian languages there are soft consonants D and T, and this unites them. Belorussky is missing. For example: day (rus), day (ukr), but Zen (Bel); Shadow (Rus), Tіn (UKR), but the Tsight (Bel).
Also in Russian and Ukrainian, there is a soft p, and in Belarusian it is pronounced only firmly. For example: a number (rus) - a row (UKR) - Rad (Bel); Ryaby (Rus) - Ryabi (UKR) - Slaves (Bel).
Russian and Ukrainian adjectives in the nominative case at the end of the word persists a solid sound, and in Belarusian this sound is lost. For example: Great (Rus) - Great (UKR) - Vyalіki (Bel); Good (Rus) - Dobly (UKR) - kind (Bel).
East Slavic languages - Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussky. The most common is Russian. Participated in Indo-European language family. The overall ancestor of these languages is Pragura.
What are the Slavic languages?
First, what are Slavic languages and who are Slavs?
Slavs - Europe's largest ethno-language community. Removered at the present time almost all continents of the world prevailing in Europe.
Slavic languages - Group of related languages of the Indo-European family. A large degree of proximity to each other is distinguished, which is found in the word structure, the use of grammatical categories, the structure of the supply, semantics, system of regular soundtractions, morphological alternations. This proximity is explained by the unity of the origin of Slavic languages and dialects.
Why do Slavic languages differ?
Long independent development of Slavic peoples in different ethnic, geographical and historical and cultural conditions, their contacts with different ethnic groups led to the appearance of a different, functional and typological difference.
Division of Slavic languages
Slavic languages According to their proximity to each other, it is customary to share: East Slavic, South Slavic and Western Slavic groups. The distribution of Slavic languages within each group has its own characteristics. Each Slavic language includes a literary language with all its internal varieties and its territorial dialects. Dialectic crushing and stylistic structure within each Slavic language of unequal. Modern East Slavic languages include Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian. West Slavic languages - a group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family, which includes Polish with Kashubsky, Serbulusky, Czech, Slovak and Polands. Modern South Slavic languages are divided into two subgroups: Western (Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Chernogorsky and Serbian) and Eastern (Bulgarian and Macedonian).
Popular Slavic languages
One of East Slavic languages, the National language of the Russian people. It is one of the most common languages of the world - sixth among all languages of the world according to the total number of speakers and the eighth in the number of people who speak as relatives. Russian is also the most common Slavic language and the most common language in Europe - geographically and by the number of native speakers as a native.
Russian is the official language in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, South Ossetia, and others. Countries of the former Soviet Union.
One of East Slavic languages, the National language of Belarusians.
Belarusian language is the state language of the Republic of Belarus, the auxiliary language of some municipalities of Poland, the language of the national minority in Ukraine and in the Czech Republic, the official language of the Union State.
One of the Slavic languages, the National language of Ukrainians. It is common mainly in Ukraine, as well as in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Moldova, Hungary, Serbia and among the descendants of immigrants in Canada, USA, Argentina, Australia and other countries. He is the state language of Ukraine. In a number of states of Central and Eastern Europe, in which Ukrainians, as a rule, are resets compactly, Ukrainian has the status of a national minority language or regional language.
Polyakov language relating to the Lechita subgroup of the Western Slavic group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the official language of Poland and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. In addition to Poland, also distributed in other European countries (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, Latvia and others), in the US countries (USA, Brazil, Canada and others) and in Australia. In a number of European countries with compact settlement of Poles, Polish received the status of a regional language.
Czech language. Refers to the West Slavonic Group, the closest to Slovak language with which is united in the Czech-Slovak subgroup. It is distributed mainly in the Czech Republic, small groups of Czech carriers also live in Slovakia, Austria, Russia, Croatia, in a number of Western European countries, in the US, Canada, Argentina, Australia and other countries. He is the official language of the Czech Republic and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. In a number of states of Central and Eastern Europe, in which the Czechs, as a rule, are resets compactly, the possibility of obtaining the status of a regional language is provided for Czech.
Slovak language. The Czech language is close to the Czech-Slovak subgroup within the Western Slavonic Group of Languages. It is the official language of the Slovak Republic and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Mainly in Slovakia, also carriers of Slovak live in the Czech Republic, Serbia, Hungary, Romania, Austria, Croatia, Canada, USA, Australia, in Ukraine and in other countries. In a number of states of Central and Eastern Europe, in which Slovaks are usually resets compactly, Slovak has the status of a regional language.
Interslawansky or Panzlavansky language - auxiliary general Slavonic language, based on the language material of Staroslavlyansky and living Slavic languages, intended for communication between their carriers, and, therefore, it can be communicated with it without using separate Slavic national languages.
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East Slavic languages are a subgroup of languages, which is part of the Slavic Group Indo-European family. They are common in Eastern Europe, in Asia, America and other parts of the world.
East Slavic languages include both alive and dead languages and a variety of dialects. As for the first group, it includes:
- Rusinsky, which is sometimes viewed as a dialect of Ukrainian.
As for the dead languages, the ancient Russian, which existed to the 14th century, the Western Russian language, which was used by the Grand Durability of Lithuanian, as well as an ancientness dialect with its own characteristic features.
Belorussky, Russian and Ukrainian - Slavic languages. The East Slavic Aspect is presented that these languages had a common ancestor - ancient Russian language, which appeared in the 7th century on the basis of Praslavyansky. Due to various historical circumstances, the Old Russian peoples were divided into three large branches - Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian, each of which went its development.
The East Slavonic group of languages has developed long. Some features of the differences appeared in languages quite late - in the 14th century, while other many centuries earlier. All three languages are characterized by similar morphology, grammar and vocabulary, however, have significant differences. Some grammatical categories are inherent in the Ukrainian and Belarusian language, and are absent in Russian. The same applies to vocabulary, since a significant number of lexical units in Ukrainian and Belarusian languages have a Polish origin.
East Slavic languages have their own distinctive features that allocate them among others:
- Phonetics. It is characterized by the presence of Praslavyansky combinations -On- ,-, -er-, -ell, one hundred, which is not typical for the Southern and Western Slavs, as well as the presence of consonants: h, j, who have been simplified from other Slavic languages.
- Vocabulary. The East Slavic subgroup of languages inherited most of its lexical units from Praslanjansky, but also has its own characteristics that distinguish them from other Slavs. The group is also characterized by borrowing, in particular from Finno-Ugric, Baltic, Turkic, Iranian, Caucasian, and Western European languages.
East Slavic languages use the Cyrillic based alphabet, which came from Bulgaria, but each group of the group has its own characteristics and letters that are missing in others.
He is the national language of Belarusians and the official language of the Republic of Belarus. In addition, it is talked to Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Poland, etc., like other East Slavic languages, Belarusian comes from ancient Russian and formed approximately 13-14 centuries in modern Belarus. This was facilitated by the formation of the Belarusian nationality, united by political, geographical, religious and other factors. A special role in this was played by the unification of lands in the Grand Principality of Lithuania. At this time, the Belarusian language becomes official and there are practically all state and legal documentation on it. Also, the development of the language contributed to schools in communities, which arose in Belarus in the 15th century.
The Lithuanian Statute, the Chronicles of Abrahamki and Bykhovtsov, Psalrty, "Small Greenhouse", "Grammar Slovenian", and others, are the statute of the Belarusian language, "Psaltry" and others. The revival of the language began in 19-20 century .
Russian language is one of East Slavic languages. It is considered one of the world diplomatic languages and they own several million people around the world. The basis of the nationalities of Russians amounted to the tribes that inhabited the territory of the Great Novgorod and the transfine Volga and Oka.
The development of a centralized state, which fought with Tatars and Mongols contributed to the formation of nationality. An important role in this was played by the reformist activities of Peter I, as well as the works of M.V. Lomonosov, G.R. Derzhavina, N.I. Novikova, N.I. Karamzin et al. The founder of the National Russian language is A.S. Pushkin. Its feature is a strict syllable principle and the dual value of many letters. The basis of the vocabulary form the old Slavonic lexical units, as well as various borrowing.
One of the most common Slavic languages. It is spoken in Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, Poland, Moldova, and others. Features of the Ukrainian language began to appear in the 12th century, and from the 14th century Ukrainians act as a separate nationality with their distinctive features.
The emergence of the Ukrainian nation is associated with the struggle of the people against the Polish and Tatar aggression. An important role in the development of Ukrainian writing was played by the works of Gregory Frying, T.G. Shevchenko, I.Ya. Franco, Lesia Ukrainka, I.P. Kotlyarevsky, G.R. Kvitka-basicano and others. For vocabulary of the Ukrainian language, the presence of borrowing from Polish, Turkic and German.
It is a combination of heterogeneous literary and linguistic and dialectic entities that are characteristic of Rusins. This nationality lives in the territory of the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, as well as on the theory of Canada and the United States. To date, the number of people owning these languages has about 1.5 million people.
There are various opinions regarding whether Rusinsky is a separate language, or a dialect of Ukrainian. Modern Ukrainian legislation considers Rusinsky as a language of national minors, whereas, for example, in Serbia, it is considered official.
Characteristic for this language is the presence of a large number of church salvations, as well as numerous polonisms, Germanism, mannerisms and other features that are not inherent in the Ukrainian language. It is also characterized by the presence of many lexical units that have Hungarian origin. In addition to this, there is a huge Plast of Slavic vocabulary, which, undoubtedly, connects it to other East Slavic relatives.
The East Slavic group of languages is part of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European family and has features and differences in comparison with the languages of the Western and South Slavs. This group includes Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian and Rusinsky, as well as a number of languages and dialects, which are now dead. This group is distributed in Eastern Europe, Asia, America, as well as in other parts of the world.