What is PDW in blood analysis - family clinic of Support Yekaterinburg

Clinical, or overall blood test refers to the easiest, inexpensive and at the same time informative laboratory diagnostics that allow the doctor to receive a primary idea of ​​the patient's health.

It is prescribed in the overwhelming majority of cases both within the framework of primary surveys and to assess the quality of the therapy. In addition, no preventive medical examination is required without this method. PDW in blood test, as, however, all other indicators is of great interest to the doctor conducting an inspection and evaluating the general physical status of the subject.

Pathological changes in this parameter often indicate the presence of a sufficiently large number of different pathologies, which, in the absence of proper therapy, can lead to sad consequences.

What does the PDW indicator mean?

The PDW abbreviation is decrypted as the width of the distribution of platelets, that is, their possible fluctuations in volume. In the analysis forms, it is denoted as a platelet distribution index. These cells are the most microscopic in size, if they compare them with other components of the bloodstream, and do not exceed 2-5 microns.

Platelets are also called blood records, which comes from the English word Platelets, and is associated with their oval flat form having small protrusions in the form of thickens. They are transparent, do not contain kernels and perform several functions for the human body, including:

  • The release of factors ensuring blood clotting and forming blood clots in places of damage to the integrity of the outer or internal soft tissue structures.
  • Production of growth factors aimed at restoring the vascular walls of the bloodstream, their saturation of the necessary biologically active components.
  • Transportation of immune complexes to the localization sites of inflammatory processes in order to relieve them.
  • Filtering the blood fluid from antigens that ceased to exist as a result of a compound with antibodies.

Reference! The production of flat nuclear-free blood tapes is made by the main blood-made organ - bone marrow. The prevailing amount of platelets, which is about 80%, circulates in the bloodstream, and a smaller part - approximately 20% is constantly present in the spleen. In it, and partially in the liver is the disposal of narrow platelets. At the same time, their life cycle is completely underwritten - only about 8-12 days.

The formation and liquidation of these cells, as well as the remaining uniform blood microparticles occurs continuously. Therefore, simultaneously in the circulatory system there are cells staying at various stages of their development. The vital cycle of platelets, for example, consists of five steps:

  • Stage of youth
  • maturity period
  • Phase old age,
  • stage of irritability
  • The moment of degeneration.

On which stage of formation is a platelet, its volume directly depends, while newly formed cells differ from the rest of the larger. As you mature and transition to the following stages (especially closer to aging), they decrease in size. The PDW indicator allows you to estimate the width of the distribution of these cells by volume and their heterogeneity. In other words, this coefficient characterizes platelet heterogeneity.

Thrombocytes

The main characteristics of thrombocyte

The indicator in the form of general blood testing form is displayed as a percentage ratio and is indirect. From which it is necessary if the values ​​of the remaining blood cells have unchanged indicators, then non-critical deviations of platelets are not considered as a sign of the presence of pathologies in the body. In this case, this coefficient is usually estimated in parallel with the MPV parameter, which allows to determine the average volume of nuclear-free cells.

Normal indicators

In people who do not have problems with coagulation, regardless of age, most platelets in the bloodstream should be kept in a mature form, because at this stage they are capable of performing their main purpose - to carry out normal activity aimed at blood clotting. The permissible deviation of the quantitative indicator of mature platelets should not exceed 10%, both towards the reduction and increase.

Excessive excess of normal parameters means a high probability of formation of thromboms, which lead to the purchase of vessels and then to the development of various pathological processes. And too low platelet indicators are a direct path to abundant blood loss, which is no less dangerous states for human life and human health.

The PDW rate in children under 18 years of having no diseases associated with blood coagulation is 10-15%. In adults, this index should not leave the interval 15-17%. Significant deviations from generally accepted parameters in almost all situations are noted as a result of functional violations of a body or system requiring immediate medical care.

Increase the coefficient

If the PDW decryption indicates an increase in values ​​is a direct sign of the significant heterogeneity of the described cells by volume. And, accordingly, such a state of blood fluid can lead to dangerous consequences. Gradual clogging of capillaries, and then larger vessels causes blood circulation difficulties, which entails even greater thrombosis. The so-called closed circle is obtained.

The result of this state may be a set of pathologies, ranging from a violation of metabolic processes in the bloodstream and ending with heart disease (myocardial infarction) or tombami in the brain (stroke).

Inlevance, indicators may be in the following situations:

  • Bleeding due to surgical operations or injuries lead to an increase in platelets concentrations, which is due to their increased production. This is required for the speedy restoration of the normal blood formula.
  • Anemia causing oxygen starvation, as a result of which nuclear-free blood cells are subjected to various types of deformations.
  • The pathology of the oncological nature leading to systematic damage to all uniform elements of blood, including platelets. This, in turn, causes a change in their volume, and, consequently, the width of the distribution in directly the most weight of blood.
  • Inflammatory processes leading to an increase in the number of cell data, and as a result, the growth of the PDW indicator. A parallel increase in leukocytes can only mean one thing - the development of inflammation is obvious!
PDW in blood

Causes of PDW Deviations

It should be aware if PDW is increased, then not in all absolutely cases it will mean the presence of any serious deviations in the body. The reasons for this may be the most banal, for example, non-compliance with the elementary rules for preparing for blood test or directly by its fear of the medical staff of the laboratory.

Therefore, it is necessary before passing the analysis to consult with a doctor about all possible subtleties to reduce the risks of obtaining unreliable results and re-analysis to the maximum. First, you need to know that blood is only surrendered on an empty stomach, that is, between the last meal and the fence of the biomaterial must pass at least 10-12 hours.

Secondly, it is necessary to eliminate the day before the study, excessive physical exertion and, if possible, psycho-emotional. Thirdly, it is necessary to refrain from the reception of any drugs, even if it is multivitamin complexes, having previously discussed their abolition for several days. Strict adherence to all listed activities will allow the doctor to see the full picture of the patient's blood state.

Reduced values

If the UAC indicates a decrease in the described parameter, then at the same time it is a sign of platelet smallness. The low coefficient of the platelet index is not always considered as a forerunner or a symptom of various kinds of pathologies.

It is necessary to take into account that in women with menstruation PDW is sometimes lowered. In addition, the decrease in the indicator may occur due to an unhealthy lifestyle, poor-quality or unbalanced nutrition, as well as individual physical characteristics of the body.

Low index values ​​are observed in situations such as:

  • diseases of blood-forming organs;
  • oncological diseases;
  • radioactive irradiation;
  • Functional liver disorders;
  • viral and bacterial infections;
  • receiving cytostatic drugs;
  • DVS and myelodsplastic syndrome;
  • anemia against the background of vitamin deficiency in 12 either folic acid.
Cigarettes and alcohol

An unhealthy lifestyle often leads to a change in blood composition and various pathologies.

Myelodsplastic syndrome is one of the reasons for the reduction of PDW - these are diseases, as a result of which the bone marrow is affected, which leads to a smaller development of all uniform components of blood, including platelets. The decrease in the indicator is also noted in the formation of metastatic foci in the bone marrow.

Chronic hepatitis often becomes the reason for the reduction of this coefficient, which means that the doctor, suspecting such a liver disease, must prescribe a patient to undergo a biochemical blood test. This will determine the concentration of bilirubin, and when hepatitis it will be high.

Attention! The sharp and at the same time a strong decrease in platelet numbers, as well as their distribution in the volume of blood, is considered no less dangerous state for human life and human health than an increase in the indicator. Such a change leads to the loss of the integrity of the organs not only the blood, but also other functional systems.

At the same time, if as a result of decryption analysis, it turned out that the parameter studied is increasingly not worth neglected by this circumstance. It should be necessary to normalize its values ​​and in the future try to control them, as well as take measures to maintain at the proper level.

For the most accurate analysis results, two indexes are used to characterize PDW. This is an SD (standard deviation) and CV (variation coefficient). PDW-SD and PDW-CV provide the ability to maximize the heterogeneity of platelets, which helps in making a diagnosis solution. These two criteria are necessarily taken into account when deciphering the results of the UAC, especially if any deviations are detected in the number or distribution of platelets.

Preventive actions

Maintain the blood indicators at the proper level maybe everyone is not difficult. Initially, you should not forget that the main aspect of normal well-being is absolutely for all people is a healthy lifestyle. When complying with a few simple rules, from day to day, the body will be delighted with its excellent indicators not only the blood, but also of all other functional systems.

So, prevention measures aimed at maintaining the following PDW indicator. During the day, adhere to the right drinking mode. After all, the blood is more than 90% composed of plasma, and it, in turn, is updated and has the ability to circulate only under the condition of continuous admission to the human body of pure drinking water.

It is necessary to eat, and their diet is exclusively from high-quality products that contain enough minerals, vitamins and other beneficial substances. Regularly make hiking or cycling. You can just walk in the fresh air at least 2 hours in places where many trees are growing: in squares, parks, forest belts, etc.

Try to avoid stressful states and other psycho-emotional unrest of negative nature. Physical classes must be non-intensive, that is, it is impossible to overduely overwork, and after overvoltage, you need to restore well. Do not take any drugs without prior consultation with your doctor, as it can cause side effects that have adversely affecting health.

The conditions necessary to maintain health are actually quite simple and easily fulfilled. But at the same time they carry huge benefit for all functional systems of the human body. That is why only simply adhering to them, you can prevent the development of dangerous violations in its activities.

Healthy lifestyle

Proper lifestyle will help keep the body healthy to the oldest

Conclusion

After deciphering the analysis materials and their interpretation, the doctor compares them with the present symptoms and complaints that the patient presents during the survey. In doubtful cases, when the reasons for deviations of the width of the distribution of platelets, the doctor fails to understand, most likely, additional surveys will be required.

In this case, patients need to be remembered that it is impossible to resort to self-treatment and abandon additional diagnostic techniques, if signs of deviations are insignificant. Especially important to the pallerism, if changes in the blood are found in the child. After all, at any time, the clinical picture can be aggravated and cause the development of complications that will be treated much more difficult.

If currently does not bother, it is enough to periodically undergo a prophylactic examination, which, as a rule, is accompanied by the passage of the UAC and several other diagnostic techniques. Only in this case it is safe to say that health condition is under regular and thorough control, which does not give the development of a single chance!

general description

Leukocytes (WBC)

Common Blood Analysis (UAC)Leukocytes (WBC) are the basis of the organism antimicrobial protection. Under normal conditions, five types of leukocytes are located in peripheral blood: granulocytes (neutrophils), eosinophils, basophiles, monocytes and lymphocytes.

The blood test is characterized by increasing the number of leukocytes (leukocytosis) at:

  • Infections (bacterial, fungal, viral);
  • Inflammatory states;
  • Malignant neoplasms;
  • Discharge fabrics;
  • Leukose;
  • Uremia;
  • Action of adrenaline and steroid hormones.

The blood test is characterized by a decrease in the number of leukocytes (leukopenia) with:

  • Aplasia and bone marrow hypoplasias;
  • Bone marrow damage to chemicals, drugs;
  • Irradiation;
  • Hyperplanism;
  • Alecemic forms of leukemia;
  • Myelofibrosis;
  • Myelodsplastic syndrome;
  • Plasmocyte;
  • Metastases of neoplasms into the bone marrow;
  • Addison-Burmer's diseases;
  • Sepsis;
  • Tithes and paratyphs;
  • Anaphylactic shock;
  • Collaplanzes.
Leukocyte rate (WBC)
4.0-8.8 × 10. 9/ L.

Erythrocytes (RBC)

The increase in blood erythrocytes is possible in the emphysema of the lungsErythrocytes (RBC) are highly specialized cells, the main task of which consists in the transport of oxygen from the lungs in tissue and carbon dioxide - back into the lungs.

The blood test is characterized by increasing the number of erythrocytes (erythrocytosis) under the following diseases:

  • congenital and acquired heart defects, pulmonary heart, lung emphysema, staying at considerable heights;
  • Polycystic kidney, kidney laughter, hemangioma, hepatoma, feuhromocytoma, the effect of corticosteroids, disease and Cushing syndrome;
  • Dehydration.

The blood test is characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes (erythroenia) under the following diseases:

  • Anemia;
  • Acute blood loss;
  • At the later period of pregnancy;
  • Hypershydration.
Erythrocyte rate (RBC)
Men women
4,0-5.6 × 1012 / l 3.5-5.1 × 1012 / l

Hemoglobin (HB)

The reduction of hemoglobin in the blood is observed in hypershydrationHemoglobin (HB) is a protein whose molecule binds and transports oxygen. It is approximately 98% of the mass of the erythrocyte cytoplasm.

The blood test is characterized by an increase in hemoglobin at:

  • Primary and secondary eritrea;
  • Dehydration;
  • Treatment with iron preparations.

The blood test is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin at:

  • Anemia;
  • Hypershydration.
Hemoglobin rate (HB)
Men women
125-165 g / l 110-145 g / l

Hematokritis (HCT)

Hematocrit (HCT) is a bulk fraction of erythrocytes in solid blood and depends on their quantity and volume.

Increased hematocrit is observed at:

  • Erythrocytosis (chronic lung diseases, finding at large altitudes, renal neoplasms, kidney polycystic);
  • States of reducing the volume of circulating plasma (burn disease, peritonitis);
  • Dehydration (profuse diarrhea, indomitable vomiting, diabetes, excessive sweating).

The decrease in hematocrit is observed at:

  • Anemia;
  • States of increasing circulating plasma (second half of pregnancy, hyperproteinemia);
  • Hypershydration.
Hematocrit rate (HCT)
Men women
38-49% 33-44%

Medium volume of erythrocytes (MCV)

The average volume of erythrocytes (MCV) is mainly used to characterize the types of anemia.

MCV value <80 FL:

  • Microcolitical anemia (iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia);
  • Anemia, accompanied by microcytosis (hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinopathy).

MCV value> 80 FL and <100FL:

  • Normocitar anemia (aplastic, hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinopathy, anemia after bleeding);
  • Anemia, accompanied by normocytosis (regenerative phase of iron deficiency anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes).

MCV value> 100fl.:

  • Macrocyte and megaloblastic anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid);
  • Anemia, accompanied by macrocyticosis (myelodysplastic syndromes, hemolytic anemia, liver disease).
The norm of the average volume of erythrocytes (MCV)
Men women
80-93 FL 80-98 FL

Average hemoglobin content in erythrocyte (MSN)

The average hemoglobin content in erythrocyte (MSN) characterizes the average hemoglobin content in a separate red blood cell and is used to characterize anemia.

Increased at:

  • Hyperchromic anemia (megaloblastic, accompanying cirrhosis of the liver).

Reduced at:

  • Hypochromic iron deficiency anemia;
  • Anemia for malignant tumors.
The norm of the average hemoglobin in red blood cell (MSN)
Men women
27.5-34.0 PG / CL 27.0-34.0 PG / CL

Average hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte (MSNS)

The average hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte (MSNS) characterizes the average hemoglobin concentration in a separate erythrocyte, determines the saturation of red blood cells.

Increased at:

  • Hyperchromic anemia (spherocytosis, ovalcitosis);
  • Hypertensive disorders of the water and electrolyte system.

Reduced to the level <31 g / dl with:

  • Hypochromic anemia (iron deficiency, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemia);
  • Hypotonic disorders of the water and electrolyte system.
The average concentration rate of hemoglobin in red blood cell (MSNS)
Men women
32.6-36.4 g / dl 32.4-35.8 g / dl

Platelets (PLT)

OAK: Increased and decrease in blood plateletsPlatelets (PLT) are involved in primary hemostasis, play an important role in the inflammatory response, in the reparation of tissues, as well as in atherogenesis.

Increasing the number of platelets (thrombocytosis) is observed at:

  • myeloproliferative disorders (Eritremia, myelofibrosis);
  • bleeding;
  • splenectomy;
  • reactive thrombocytosis;
  • iron deficiency;
  • malignant neoplasms;
  • chronic inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis);
  • acute hemolysis;
  • treatment with corticosteroids;
  • Physical overvoltage.

A decrease in the number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) is observed at:

  • reduced platelet products;
  • increased fragmentation of platelets;
  • hemolytic-uremic syndrome;
  • Splenomegaly;
  • DVS syndrome;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • Neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia.
Platelet rate (PLT)
150-450 × 109 / l

Neutrophils (Neut)

Neutrophils (neut) are the first security link in various invasions, especially bacterial.

Increased with the following states:

  • Physiological neutropylsees in newborns, during exercise, under stress;
  • Acute infections;
  • Intoxication: metabolic (uremia, diabetic acidosis), poisoning (lead, digitalis, insect bites, alien protein);
  • Sharp bleeding;
  • Malignant neglectological diseases;
  • Chronic myelonoplastic diseases;
  • Serum disease;
  • Systemic diseases;
  • Action of some medicines: glucocorticosteroids, lithium preparations, androgens;
  • Gout.

Reduced with the following states:

  • Infections: bacterial (tit, paratif, brucellosis, tularemia); viral (infectious hepatitis, flu, rubella, cortex, AIDS); parasitic (malaria); ricketsiosis (raw tit);
  • Radiation disease;
  • Autoimmune diseases;
  • The action of medicinal substances (cytostatic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, tranquilizers);
  • Severe anemia (due to iron deficiency, vitamin B12, folic acid);
  • Aplastic anemia, myelodsplastic syndrome, hematological oncoabouts (acute and chronic leukemia, primary myelofibrosis);
  • Exhaustion (cachexia, chronic alcohol poisoning);
  • Congenital neutropenia (Schwachman Syndrome, Kostnova);
  • Hyperplanism.
Normal Neutrophil (Neut)
40-70%

Lymphocytes (Lymph)

OAK: Increase and decrease in blood leukocytesLymphocytes (Lymph) - the main function is to recognize the antigen and participation in the adequate immunological response of the body. Lymphocytosis is defined as a state at which the absolute amount of lymphocytes is above 4.0 × 109 / l in adults. Relative lymphocytosis is an increased percentage of circulating lymphocytes.

Relative lymphocytosis (more than 35%) is noted at:

  • Toxoplasmosis;
  • Viral diseases (measles, pig, windmill, rubella, viral pneumonia);
  • Bacterial and parasitic diseases (tuberculosis, syphilis, malaria, abdominal typhoid, brucellosis, diphteria).

An increase in the absolute number of lymphocytes (more than 2.8 × 109 / l) is noted when:

  • Reactive lymphocytosis with conventional lymphocytes: viral infection (flu); acute infectious lymphocytosis; whooping cough;
  • Jet lymphocytosis with reactive lymphocytes: viral infection (adenovirus); Infectious mononucleosis; acute viral hepatitis; infections CMV;
  • Hyperplastic diseases of the lymphatic system: chronic lymphatic leukemia; Macroglobulinemia Valdenstrem.

Absolute lymphopenia (less than 1.5 × 109 / l) is observed at:

  • infectious diseases (AIDS, miliar tuberculosis, purulent and septic processes);
  • Aplastic anemia, chlorosis, hypoplastic anemy);
  • Systemic Red Volcanka, Splenomegaly, Myasthenia Gravis;
  • under stress;
  • diseases or syndrome of Itsenko Cushing;
  • hereditary diseases of the immune system (Wiscott-Oldrich syndrome, combined immunodeficiency, ataxia-teleangectation);
  • lymphosarcoma, lymphogranulomatosis,
  • chemotherapy, radiation therapy,
  • Taking corticosteroids.
Lymphocyte rate (Lymph)
20-35% (1.5-2.8 × 109 / l)

Monocytes (Myno)

Monocytes (MNO) are removed from the body, the dying cells, the remains of destroyed cells, denatured proteins, bacteria and antigen-antibody complexes, perform an important role in the immune response of cells, interacting with lymphocytes.

Monocytosis: more than 0.8 × 109 / l:

  • Bacterial infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, brucellosis, endocarditis, types and parathy);
  • Recovery period after acute states;
  • Diseases caused by the simplest;
  • Inflammatory reactions;
  • Surgical interventions;
  • Collagenosis;
  • Crohn's disease;
  • Leukemia: monocytarian and myelomocytic leukemia; Prothemia.

Monocytopenia: less than 0.03 × 109 / l:

  • After treatment with glucocorticosteroids;
  • In case of neutropenia infections.
Monocyte rate (MNO)
3-8% (0.2-0.55 × 109 / l)

Eosinophils (EO)

Eosinophilic (EO) are cells, phagocying antigen antibody complexes, mainly represented by immunoglobulin E. The effect of eosinophils is actively manifested in sensitized tissues.

Eosinophilia (more than 0.4 × 109 / l in adults) is observed at:

  • Allergies;
  • Bronchial asthma;
  • Hay fever;
  • Lisha scaly, eczema;
  • Parasitic diseases;
  • Infectious diseases, scarletine;
  • Erytheme;
  • Acute leukemia;
  • Treatment with antibiotics.

Eosinopenia (less than 0.05 × 109 / l) is observed at:

  • The effects of adrenal hormones and ACTH;
  • Reactions to various types of stress;
  • Acute infections;
  • Sepsis;
  • Injuries, burns, surgical interventions;
  • Physical overvoltage.
Eosinophil rate (EO)
1-5% (0.1-0.3 × 109 / l)

Basophilas (VASO)

Basophiles (VASO) are blood cells formed in the bone marrow. The main function is in the reactions of hypersensitivity immediate and slow-type through lymphocytes, in inflammatory, allergic reactions, in the regulation of the permeability of the vascular wall.

Increase more than 0.3 × 109 / l:

  • Allergic conditions;
  • Acute leukemia;
  • Chronic myeloproliferative syndromes (chronic myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis, eritremia);
  • Chronic inflammatory states of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Ulcerative inflammation of the intestine;
  • Thyroid hypofunction;
  • Estrogen treatment;
  • Haldgling disease.

Reduction below 0.01 × 109 / l:

  • Acute infections;
  • Acute inflammation of the lungs;
  • Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland;
  • Stress.
Basophil Norma (VASO)
0-1% (more than 0.06 × 109 / l)

Middle Volume of platelets (MPV)

The average volume of platelets (MPV) is the average of the measured platelet. As thrombocytees are aging, their volume decreases.

Increased at:

  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purple;
  • Macrocytic thrombocytodistrophy of Bernard-Suliea;
  • Anomalies of Maya-Hegglin;
  • Postgymorrhagic anemia;
  • Hyperthyroidism;
  • Splenectomy;
  • Diabetes;
  • Thalassemia;
  • System Red Volcanka.

Reduced at:

  • Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome;
  • Splenomegaly;
  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Megaloblastic anemia;
  • Aplastic anemia;
  • Myelodsplastic syndrome;
  • Cytostatic and radiation therapy.
Middle Tombo Mode (MPV)
7-11 FL

Platelet heterogeneity indicator (PDW)

The platelet heterogeneity indicator (PDW) is the dispersion of platelet distribution by volume. Thrombocyt anisocytosis> 15% is found in immune thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy, hypoplastic states, myeloproliferative diseases.

Increased at:

  • Immune thrombocytopenia;
  • Some thrombocytopathy;
  • Myelonoplastic diseases.

Reduced at:

  • Aplastic anemia;
  • Myelodsplastic syndrome;
  • Leukemia;
  • Metastases of malignant tumors in the bone marrow;
  • Goshe accumulation diseases, Nimana-Peak;
  • Radiation disease;
  • Treatment with cytostatics;
  • Immune thrombocytopenia;
  • Splenomegaly;
  • DVS syndrome;
  • Hemolytic-uremic syndrome;
  • Viral infections;
  • Septicemia;
  • Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver tumors;
  • Megaloblastic anemia.
The rate of platelet heterogeneity indicator (PDW)
10-15%

Thrombocrit (PCT)

Thrombocrit (PCT) is an indicator characterizing the percentage of platelet mass in the amount of blood. Used to assess the risk of bleeding and thrombosis.

Increased at:

  • Myeloproliferative diseases (essential thrombocytemy, eritremia, chronic myelolomicosis, fostececemic myelosis);
  • For two months after splenectomy;
  • Reactive thrombocytosis (iron deficiency, infectious diseases, inflammatory processes).

Reduced at:

  • Aplastic anemia;
  • Myelodsplastic syndrome;
  • Mielosuppression during radiation or cytostatic therapy;
  • Hemoblastosis;
  • Megaloblastic (B12-folide-defective) anemia;
  • Splenomegaly;
  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Chronic renal failure.
Thrombocrit rate (PCT)
0.15-0.35%

Leukogram

The leukogram is the leukocyte formula is the percentage of various types of leukocytes. Count in painted blood strokes.

Shift to the left (metamielocytes, myelocytes are present in the blood):

  • Acute infectious diseases;
  • Acidosis, comatose diseases;
  • Physical overvoltage.

The shift to the left with rejuvenation (metamielocytes, myelocytes, promoelocytes, myeloblasts and erythroblasts are present in the blood):

  • Chronic leukemia;
  • Erytrolomicosis;
  • Myelofibrosis;
  • Metastasis of malignant neoplasms;
  • Acute leukemia.

Shift to the right (hypersegmented granulocytes appear in the blood):

  • Megaloblastic anemia;
  • Diseases of the kidneys and liver;
  • Status after blood transfusion.
Leakeogram rate
Neutrophils Ragged 1-5%, neutrophils segmented 40-70%, lymphocytes 20-35%, monocytes 3-8%, eosinophils 1-5%, basophiles 0-1%

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (EE)

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SE): acceleration and slowdownThe erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESO) is the rate of separation of inverted blood into two layers: the lower consisting of the axial erythrocytes, and the upper - transparent plasma. ESO, as a non-specific indicator of the disease process, is often used for tracking it.

Soe is accelerated at:

  • Pregnancy, postpartum period, menstruation;
  • Inflammatory diseases (acute and chronic infections, inflammation of lungs, rheumatism, myocardial infarction, injuries, bone fractures, shock, operational interventions, collagenoses, Reino disease, chemical poisoning);
  • Anemia;
  • Hyper and hypofunction of the thyroid gland;
  • Nephrotic syndrome;
  • Malignant tumors;
  • Monoclonal gammapathy;
  • Hyperfibrinogenemia;
  • Hypercholesterolemia;
  • Taking some drugs (morphine, dextran, methyloft, vitamin A).

Soe slowed down at:

  • Eritremia;
  • Chronic blood circulation deficiency;
  • Hypofibrinogenemia.
Erethrocyte sedimentation rate (SE)
Men women
1-10 mm / hour 3-15 mm / hour

Norma

Common blood test: decryption in adults (norm in the table)

Norm
Men women
Leukocytes (WBC) 4.0-8.8 × 10. 9/ L.
Erythrocytes (RBC) 4.0-5.6 × 10. 12 / L. 3.5-5.1 × 10 12 / L.
Hemoglobin (HB) 125-165 g / l 110-145 g / l
Hematokritis (HCT) 38-49% 33-44%
Medium volume of erythrocytes (MCV) 80-93 FL 80-98 FL
Average hemoglobin content in erythrocyte (MSN) 27.5-34.0 PG / CL 27.0-34.0 PG / CL
Average hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte (MSNS) 32.6-36.4 g / dl 32.4-35.8 g / dl
Platelets (PLT) 150-450 × 10. 9/ L.
Neutrophils (Neut) 40-70%
Lymphocytes (Lymph) 20-35% (1.5-2.8 × 10 9/ l)
Monocytes (Myno) 3-8% (0.2-0.55 × 10 9/ l)
Eosinophils (EO) 1-5% (0.1-0.3 × 10 9/ l)
Basophilas (VASO) 0-1% (greater than 0.06 × 10 9/ l)
Middle Volume of platelets (MPV) 7-11 FL
Platelet heterogeneity indicator (PDW) 10-15%
Thrombocrit (PCT) 0.15-0.35%
Leukogram Neutrophils Ragged 1-5%, neutrophils segmented 40-70%, lymphocytes 20-35%, monocytes 3-8%, eosinophils 1-5%, basophiles 0-1%
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (EE) 1-10 mm / hour 3-15 mm / hour
  1. 1. Jet Arthritis
  2. 2. Infectious endocarditis
  3. 3. Myocardial infarction
  4. 4. Violation of spinal blood circulation
  5. 5. Rheumatoid arthritis
  6. 6. Ostoxyelitis hips
  7. 7. osteomyelitis of the bones of the leg
  8. 8. osteomyelitis of the heal
  9. 9. Windmap
  10. 10. B12 deficient anemia
  11. 11. Iron deficiency anemia Chronic
  12. 12. Acute leukemia
  13. 13. Sugar diabetes (1 and 2 type)
  14. 14. Hyperthyroidism
  15. 15. Feochromocytoma
  16. 16. Chronic leukemia
  17. 17. Bronchial asthma
  18. 18. Croon's disease
  19. 19. Lymphogranulomatosis
  20. 20. Eritremia
  21. 21. The duodenal ulcer
  22. 22. Journal Erythema
  23. 23. Peritonit
  24. 24. Urolithiasis
  25. 25. Nephomical syndrome
  26. 26. Influenza
  27. 27. Acute pyelonephritis
  28. 28. Prostatitis
  29. 29. Reino disease
  30. 30. Difteria
  31. 31. Higureticism
  32. 32. Lung Tuberculosis (Miliary)
  33. 33. Polycystic kidney
  34. 34. Cushing syndrome
  35. 35. Hemolytic anemia
  36. 36. Cort
  37. 37. Krasnuha
  38. 38. Scarlatina
  39. 39. Epidemic parotitis
  40. 40. Infectious mononucleosis
  41. 41. Poklush
  42. 42. Syphilis
  43. 43. Chronic renal failure
  44. 44. Chronic hepatitis
  45. 45. Cirrhosis of the liver
  46. 46. ​​Eczema
  47. 47. Acute renal failure
  48. 48. Intestinal-urinary fistula
  49. 49. Lung tuberculosis (focal and infiltrative)
  50. 50. Brucellosis
  51. 51. Cytomegalovirus infection
  52. 52. Toxoplasmosis
  53. 53. Tiff and parathy
  54. 54. Raw typhus
  55. 55. Tularemia
  56. 56. Chronic pharyngitis
  57. 57. Abdominal typhus
  58. 58. Malaria
  59. 59. Meningitis
  60. 60. AIDS.
  61. 61. Hoodpasher syndrome
  62. 62. Bekhtereva's disease
  63. 63. Shegren syndrome
  64. 64. System Red Volchanka
  65. 65. Sclerodermia.
  66. 66. Mixed connective tissue disease
  67. 67. Autoimmune chronic gastritis
  68. 68. Primary biliary cirrhosis
  69. 69. Upper Periiatheritis
  70. 70. Hypovitaminosis
  71. 71. Dyspepsia
  72. 72. Nephroptosis
  73. 73. Renal colic
  74. 74. Chronic bronchitis
  75. 75. Ascites
  76. 76. Balanopostit
  77. 77. Gaymorit
  78. 78. Stones in the kidneys
  79. 79. Giardiasis
  80. 80. Allergy to cold
  81. 81. Food allergy
  82. 82. Polleoz
  83. 83. Acute bacterial prostatitis
  84. 84. Allergic conjunctivitis
  85. 85. Orchit
  86. 86. Priapism
  87. 87. Epididiment
  88. 88. Allergies for insect bites
  89. 89. Oligospermia
  90. 90. Retrograde ejaculation
  1. Infectious endocarditis

    The endocarditis is observed monocytosis (MNO) greater than 0.8 × 109 / l.

  2. Myocardial infarction

    With myocardial infarction, the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells (ESO) is accelerated.

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis

    With rheumatoid arthritis, anemia, leukocytosis is noted, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (the degree of increase of its increase correlates with the degree of intensity of the flow of the inflammatory process) ..

  4. Chickenpox

    During the windmill, there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  5. B12 deficient anemia

    With B12 deficient anemia, the average hemoglobin content in erythrocyte (MSN) is increased; Thrombocrit (pct) is lowered; Average erythrocyte (MCV)> 100 FL. With a serious degree anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid is reduced by the number of neutrophils (NEUT).

  6. Conductible CHRONIC Anemia

    In hypochromic iron deficiency anemia, the average hemoglobin content in erythrocyte (MSN) is increased; The average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte is reduced to the level of <31 g / dl. With severe anemia due to iron deficiency, the number of neutrophils (NEUT) is reduced. In case of microcarte iron deficiency anemia, the average volume of erythrocytes (MCV) <80 PL. With the regenerator phase of iron deficiency anemia, accompanied by normocytosis, the average volume of erythrocytes (MCV)> 80 FL and <100 FL.

  7. Acute leukemia

    In leukes, there is an increase in the number of leukocytes (WBC) (leukocytosis). In acute leukemia, eosinophilia is noted (EO) (more than 0.4 × 109 / l in adults); Increase of basophils (VASO) Over 0.3 × 109 / l; Lowering thromboocrit (pct).

  8. Sugar diabetes (1 and 2 type)

    In diabetes mellitus, the average volume of platelets (MPV) is elevated.

  9. Hyperthyroidism

    With hyperthyroidism, the average volume of platelets (MPV) is increased.

  10. Feochromocytoma

    With a feochromocyte, an increase in the number of erythrocytes (red blood cell) is observed.

  11. Chronic leukemia

    In leukes, there is an increase in the number of leukocytes (WBC) (leukocytosis). In chronic leukemia, thrombocrit (pct) is lowered.

  12. Bronchial asthma

    At bronchial asthma, eosinophilia (EO) is noted (more than 0.4 × 109 / l in adults).

  13. Crohn's disease

    In case of crown disease, monocytosis is observed (MNO) greater than 0.8 × 109 / l.

  14. Lymphogranulomatosis

    With lymphogranulomatosis, absolute lymphopenia is noted (Lymph) (less than 1.5 × 109 / l); Increase basophils (VASO) Over 0.3 × 109 / l.

  15. Eritremia

    In eritriment, an increase in hemoglobin (HB) is observed; increasing the number of platelets (PLT) (thrombocytosis); Increase of basophils (VASO) Over 0.3 × 109 / l; raising thromboocrit (pct); Slowing the speed of erythrocyte sedimentation (SE).

  16. Duodenal ulcer

    With ulcerative inflammation of the intestine, there is an increase in basophils (VASO) over 0.3 × 109 / l.

  17. Journal Erythema

    When erythene, eosinophilia (EO) is noted (more than 0.4 × 109 / l in adults).

  18. Peritonitis

    When peritonitis, an increase in hematocrit (HCT) is observed.

  19. Nephrotic syndrome

    With nephrotic syndrome, the rate of sedimentation of erythrocytes (SE) is accelerated.

  20. Flu

    With influenza, the number of neutrophils is lowered (neut). The flu is noted an increase in the absolute number of lymphocytes (LYMPH) (more than 2.8 × 109 / l).

  21. Acute pyelonephritis

    Leukocytosis, leukocyte blood flow shift, left (the number of laid neutrophils is 20% and higher).

  22. Reino disease

    In case of Raino disease, the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells (ESO) is accelerated.

  23. Diphtheria

    Difteria is noted relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  24. Hypocorticism

    During the illness of Addison-Burmer, there is a decrease in the number of leukocytes (WBC) (leukopenia).

  25. Lung tuberculosis (miliary)

    With tuberculosis, the amount of platelets (PLT) (thrombocytosis) is increased, the relative lymphocytosis (Lymph) is noted (more than 35%), monocytosis (MNO) is greater than 0.8 × 109 / l. With miliar tuberculosis, absolute lymphopenia is noted (Lymph) (less than 1.5 × 109 / l).

  26. Polycystic kidney

    In case of kidney polycystic, there is an increase in the number of erythrocytes (RBC) (erythrocytosis), an increase in hematocrit (HCT).

  27. Cushing syndrome

    In Cushing syndrome, there is an increase in the number of erythrocytes (RBC) (erythrocytosis); Absolute lymphopenia (Lymph) (less than 1.5 × 109 / l).

  28. Hemolytic anemia

    In hemolytic anemia, accompanied by microcytosis, the average volume of erythrocytes (MCV) <80 FL. With normocitar hemolytic anemia, the average volume of erythrocytes (MCV)> 80 FL and <100 FL. In hemolytic anemia, accompanied by macrocytosis, MCV value> 100 FL.

  29. Measles

    For measles, the number of neutrophils is lowered (neut), there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  30. Rubella

    With a rubella, the number of neutrophils (neut) is reduced, there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  31. Scarlet fever

    With scarletin, eosinophilia (EO) is noted (more than 0.4 × 109 / l in adults).

  32. Parotitis

    When the pig is noted relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  33. Infectious mononucleosis

    In case of infectious mononucleosis, an increase in the absolute number of lymphocytes (LYMPH) is noted (more than 2.8 × 109 / l).

  34. Whooping cough

    With cough, there is an increase in the absolute number of lymphocytes (Lymph) (more than 2.8 × 109 / l).

  35. Syphilis

    The syphilis is noted relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%), monocytosis (MNO) is greater than 0.8 × 109 / l.

  36. Chronic renal failure

    In chronic renal failure, thrombocrit (pct) is lowered.

  37. Chronic hepatitis

    In chronic hepatitis, platelet heterogeneity indicator (PDW) is lowered.

  38. Cirrhosis of the liver

    In the cirrhosis of the liver, the amount of platelets (PLT) (thrombocytosis) is increased; The average volume of platelets (MPV), platelet heterogeneity indicator (PDW), thrombocrit (PCT) lowered.

  39. Eczema

    With eczema, eosinophilia (EO) is noted (more than 0.4 × 109 / l in adults).

  40. Lung tuberculosis (focal and infiltrative)

    With tuberculosis, the amount of platelets (PLT) (thrombocytosis) is increased, the relative lymphocytosis (Lymph) is noted (more than 35%), monocytosis (MNO) is greater than 0.8 × 109 / l.

  41. Brucellosis

    With brucellosis, the number of neutrophils is reduced (neut), there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%), monocytosis (MNO) greater than 0.8 × 109 / l.

  42. Cytomegalovirus infection

    When the CMV infection marks an increase in the absolute number of lymphocytes (LYMPH) (more than 2.8 × 109 / l).

  43. Toxoplasmosis

    With toxoplasmosis, there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  44. Tiff and parathy

    Under the types and paratiffs, there is a decrease in the number of leukocytes (WBC) (leukopenia), neutrophils (NEUT), monocytosis is observed (MNO) more than 0.8 × 109 / l.

  45. Typhus

    With a rapid typhoid, the number of neutrophils (neut) is lowered.

  46. Tularemia

    With Tularevia, the number of neutrophils is lowered (neut).

  47. Typhoid fever

    With abdominal title, there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  48. Malaria

    In malaria, the number of neutrophils (neut) is reduced, there is relative lymphocytosis (LYMPH) (more than 35%).

  49. AIDS

    With AIDS, the amount of neutrophils (neut) is reduced, absolute lymphopenia is noted (Lymph) (less than 1.5 × 109 / l).

  50. Hoodpasher syndrome

    The iron deficiency hypochromic anemia, anisocytosis, cacificitosis, leukocytosis with a shift to the left, expressed acceleration of ESO was noted.

  51. Bekhtereva's disease

    In case of Bekhterev's disease, anemia, leukocytosis, acceleration of ESP to 40 mm / hour is noted.

  52. SHEGREEN SYNDROM

    There is anemia, leukopenia, accelerated ESR.

  53. Systemic Red Volchanka

    With systemic red lupus, anemia, leukopenia (less than 4 · 109 / l), thrombocytopenia (less than 100 · 109 / l), accelerated ESP, are noted.

  54. Sclerodermia

    There are anemia, the acceleration of ESP is more than 20 mm / h.

  55. Mixed connective tissue disease

    Moderate hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, SE acceleration are noted.

  56. Autoimmune chronic gastritis

    For autoimmune chronic gastritis, a decrease in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, platelets, leukocytes, an increase in the figures of the color indicator is characterized.

  57. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    For primary biliary liver cirrhosis, it is characterized by an acceleration of ESO, thrombocytopenia.

  58. Nodular periateritis

    Characteristic anemia, acceleration of ESP, neutrophilic leukocytosis with a shift to the left, hypertromability.

How to decipher blood test

Deciphering the results is the competence of a pediatrician, therapist or a narrow specialist, as it is important not only to analyze the numbers, but also compare deviations from the norms of different indicators, compare the information obtained in the inspection and collection of anamnesis. To have a general idea and be prepared for the doctor's reception, find out which blood elements are investigated in the laboratory, how to interpret the results and that can mean deviations.

Content:

What indicators contains blood test

Delivery of blood for research is necessary in planned hospitalization, to assess the effectiveness of the therapy and in the period of tooling the child. To put an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment, the doctor always assigns a common blood test. Material for research takes from finger or from veins. The second option is preferable, since the venous blood shows more precisely the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes.

First of all, red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets are analyzed, as well as:

  • Hemoglobin level.
  • Erythrocyte indexes.
  • Hematocrit level.
  • The number of reticulocytes.

Additionally, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESO), color and blood coagulation period is set.

An expanded study involves the indication of the leukocyte formula, which includes the counting of eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, rods, segmented neutrophils.

Decoding and normal values ​​of blood test indicators

As is denoted

What means

Norm for women

Norm for men

RBC.

Erythrocytes

3.5-4.5

4,0-5.5

WBC.

Leukocytes

4-9

PLT.

Thrombocytes

180-320

HGB.

Hemoglobin

120-140.

130-170.

MCV.

Average erythrocyte volume

82-98

81-95

MCH

The average HGB level in red blood cell

26-32.

MchC.

Averaged concentration of red blood cells in HGB (%)

31-38.

HCT.

Hematocrit (%)

35-44

40-50

RET.

Reticulocytes (%)

0.2-1

ESR.

Soe (mm / h)

2-15

1-10.

CPU

Color

0.85-1.05

What can mean deviations in the UAC

To diagnose, it matters both the current blood test and previous studies that allow you to track changes. Consider what can mean deviations of indicators:

  • Erythrocytes. Excess value accompanies insufficient oxygen flow, dehydration, acquired heart rate, impaired adrenal function. The indicator below can be with blood loss, iron deficiency anemia, in the second half of pregnancy, in chronic infectious diseases.
  • Leukocytes. Leukocytosis (excess of the norm) can be caused by physiological characteristics or pathology. In the first case, the reasons are: pregnancy, intense physical / psycho-emotional overload, supercooling / overheating. Inflammatory and oncological diseases, poisoning and allergic reactions are manifested by pathological leukocytosis. In the protein, bone marrow hypoplasia, lesions of liver, measles, lymphoganunomatosis, autoimmune diseases will reveal a decrease in leukocytes.
  • Platelets. The amount decreases with leukemia, AIDS, poisoning, bone marrow lesions, long-term therapy hormones or antibiotics. The figure is beyond the limits of the norm when inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum, osteomyelitis, diseases of the joints, cancer lesions, in the postoperative period.
  • Hemoglobin level. The excess of the norm occurs against the background of the increased platelet content, impaired blood coagulation function, after transferred gastrointestinal disorder, in the overdose of drugs from anemia. Low HGB gives the right to suspect the presence of internal bleeding, disorders of the kidneys, malignant neoplasms, bone marrow lesions.
  • Erythrocyte indexes (MCV, MCH, MCHC). Indicators give an idea of ​​the state of red blood cells and their functionality. MCV is the average volume of one erythrocyte, increases with the diseases of the liver and blood formation system, lack of folic acid and vitamin B12. Decreases with some kinds of anemia, hyperthyroidism, hemoglobinopathy. MCH shows the average hemoglobin content in one erythrocyte. Analogue of the color indicator. MCHC is averaged concentration of red blood pigment. Interpretation is carried out with the rest of the indices.
  • Hematocrit level. Allows you to evaluate the gravity of anemia associated with iron deficiency. The excess of the norm indicates dehydration, extensive burns, inflammation of the peritoneum. Low digit gives the right to suspect the pathology of the heart and the vascular system, diseases of the kidneys, blood, extensive blood loss, malaria, poisoning.
  • The number of reticulocytes. The excess of the norm is noted during blood loss, poisoning poisons, the reception of some drugs, in the recovery period after the treatment of cancer, with diseases of the blood formation system, metastases in the bone marrow. The decrease in the number of young erythrocytes causes: anemia, kidney disease, chronic infections, bone marrow tumors, blood pathology, thyroid cell, chemotherapy, folic acid deficiency and vitamin B12.
  • Soe. Reduced in heart pathologies, diseases of the joints, anaphylactic shock. The excess of the norm is noted during pregnancy, anemia, severe poisoning, with exacerbation of chronic diseases, inflammatory processes in the body.
  • Color. Hyperchromia (excess of the norm) indicates a shortage of cyanocobalamina, possible polyps in the stomach, a variety of malignant tumors, lack of vitamin B9. Hypochromia (reducing the color indicator) indicates anemia or lead poisoning. Under Normochromium, the doctor looks at the meanings of other, more informative indicators.

How to decipher the leukocyte formula with a deployed blood test

The leukocyte formula has a special meaning when rejecting the number of leukocytes from the norm. White blood tales are different and for accurate diagnosis of the disease it is important to understand which leukocytes are more / less.

The composition of the leukocyte formula:

Indicator

Value,% of the total leukocyte

Neutrophils (NE)

Segmentores

47-72.

Caidiary

1-6

Basophiles (BA)

0-1

Monocytes (MO)

3-11

Eosinophils (EO)

1-5

Lymphocytes (LY)

19-37

Leukocytes are divided into:

  • Granulocytes having nuclei (neutrophils, basophiles, eososinophila).
  • Agranulocytes, not having nuclei (monocytes, lymphocytes).

Of particular importance is the number of neutrophils, since they are actively involved in the fight against bacterial infections. The reasons for neutrophilia (exceeding the norm) are acute forms of bacterial infections, purulent wounds, heart attacks, kidney or spleen, oncology. Causes of neutropenia (lowering neutrophils): influenza, cortex, rubella, viral hepatitis, blood formation disease, thyrotoxicosis, period after chemotherapy, heredity.

Basophiles are responsible for the development of an allergic reaction and in the results of the analysis may be absent. Excess rate can be in carcinoma, lymphoma, hypothyroidism, eczema, tuberculosis, anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies for products or medicines.

Eosinophils protect the body from parasitic diseases. Raised in gonorly, chlamydia, tuberculosis, scarletin, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, peeking, pleurite, cancer, red lolly, rheumatoid arthritis. Fill at the initial stage of appendicitis, pancreatitis, during sepsis, pain shock and strong stress, poisoning and leukemia.

Monocytes. They are responsible for the elimination of destroyed microbes, damaged leukocytes and residues of organism cells. Increase with fungal, viral or bacterial infection, during recovery period, with rheumatoid arthritis, worms and amoes, poisoning. Fill in abscesses, in the postoperative period, with aplastic anemia, prednisone reception.

Lymphocytes. Responsible for antibodies and cellular immunity. Lymphocytosis accompanies viral, bacterial diseases, parasitic invasion, lymphosarcoma, poisoning. Limphopal is characteristic of serious infectious inflammatory and oncological diseases, HIV, radiation disease, renal failure.

As a rule, the laboratory issues results on special form containing information about the norms of each indicator. The final diagnosis is better to trust the specialist who decrypts the values ​​in the complex, given the characteristics of the processes in the body.

КThe human member consists of two components. The first is the flowing plasma rich in proteins. The second is the shaped cells, among which the mansion is platelets. These red plates provide normal coatability, help the body to cope with mechanical damage.

PDW in blood test is a platelet heterogeneity indicator, in more simply, it demonstrates which forms of cells prevail: young and functionally active or old and practically unsuitable for solving physiological problems.

Normally contain those and others in the blood, but they should be in dynamic equilibrium. Mostly in line with a healthy person, young, ready-made form, are found. The PDW abbreviation is decrypted as a relative timetage distribution width over blood volume.

Deviations in the study do not always mean the pathological process. It often turns out that we are talking about the functional version of the norm.

The question is complex and requires study with the hematologist. You can only say anything specific after a group of analyzes. The data is decrypted in the system.

The need for treatment is also not always. Changes in PDW, this is not an independent diagnosis, but rather a laboratory indicator. It is necessary to fight with the main disease.

The essence of the analysis and that it shows

To understand what we are talking about, you need to refer to the anatomy and human physiology.

Platelets are special uniform blood cells. They provide its normal coagulation.

The development of cytological structures occurs in the special tissues of the bone marrow. This process is called hematopoze, and if it is isolated about platelets that thrombocytopoese.

The process of development of thrombocyte

Platelets perform their functions for quite a long time. Within 5-12 days. Then they die, and new ones come to shift.

But this is not a rapid phenomenon. For a long time, the shaped cell passes all stages of life from youth to old age.

After ripening and immediately after exiting the bone marrow - the structure is large. The blood plate is capable of performing tasks facing it as efficiently as possible.

To close the wound surface requires less time and not so much platelets. Moreover, adhesion and aggregation occurs faster. That is, attachment to the wall of the vessel and accumulation, layering.

Blood coagulation

Old cells are no longer so active. They need more, and the natural processes themselves are slow and not as good as before. Hence the problem.

Accordingly, if they have narrowed their cytological units, the coagulation will suffer. Its intensity will not be so great, which will affect the coagulogram.

New and old-platelets

The platelet or PDW distribution index indicates the heterogeneity of the cells: that is, in which the percentage ratio is distributed red plates.

Normally, they must be in dynamic equilibrium. As values ​​use numbers from 1 to 20%. With the predominance of young forms of cytological structures, the formula is shifted to the right. That is, in the biggest. In the reverse case, when there are many old cells, the other way around. The number will be lower.

The conditional generalized rate is approximately 15-17%. That is, young planes of platelets must prevail in the bloodstream. This is an indispensable condition for normal coagulation and work of the body. Of course, there are differences depending on the floor and age of patients.

Analysis shows several basic violations:

  • Thrombocytopathy . A classic pathological process in which the functional activity of red blood plates decreases. Formally, the number of them remains normal. Here, the index is coming to the rescue.

Since the reason often turns out to be on the surface and is to change the ratio of platelets. The more old cells, the worse the situation with the work of the body. In critical cases, left their structure remain.

  • Thrombocytopenia . Another state. It changes not only the PDW index, but also other indicators. A business card of the pathological process is a decrease in the number of platelets. It all depends on the primary diagnosis.

Thrombocytopenia

  • Bone marrow disorders. To say more precisely what is quite difficult. As a rule, with disorders of this kind, previous named pathologies are developing. At the same time, immature hematopoietic cells appear in the bloodstream. Megacariocytes. They are not capable of performing any functions. In this case, it makes sense to diagnose. Appoint the puncture of the bone marrow.

Blood research on PDW is far from the only necessary analysis. To say exactly what the patient needs auxiliary activities.

Indications for research

There are quite a lot of grounds for diagnostics. If we talk more:

  • Bone marrow disorders. Myeloproliferative diseases and conditions at which the ripening of uniform cells is upset. Not only platelets, but also red white blood tauros. Also other disorders from the bone marrow. Up to blood cancer.

Unfortunately, the analysis is too common to show concrete changes. Deviations from PDW are just an indication of violation. But not an exhaustive method of diagnosis. The bone marrow puncture and other studies will be required.

bone-brain

  • Diagnosed previous thrombocytopathy. A condition in which the functional activity of blood cells falls, but their number remains at a normal level. It is often found. Practically does not happen primary. As a rule, the disorder is due to other pathological processes.
  • Cancer diseases. Regardless of the type, stage and localization. The platelet distribution index (PDW) may well be a non-specific marker of the oncological process.

The reason for this is disorders of the bone marrow. It can no longer operate in "regular" mode. Consequently, the ripening of cells slows down. In the bloodstream circulators and old platelet forms circulate. This is a rather typical clinical picture of cancer.

  • Preparation for hospitalization in the hospital. The study of the platelet distribution index is included in the mandatory list. Especially if the doctors plan operational treatment or invasive procedures. The decline unequivocally speaks in favor of coagulopathy.
Attention:

Disorders of coagulation - contraindications for operational treatment.

  • Monitoring therapy. Study of the platelet distribution index is also practiced within the framework of dynamic observation, when experts assess the patient's health status after the treatment. Such is necessary, for example, in the treatment Megaloblaste , iron deficiency anemia and other pathological processes.
  • Preventive inspections. Semiannually. As a rule, the PDW study is carried out within the framework of a standard blood test. Because the patient does not have to break and run on additional research.

List of readings approximate. The doctor on his own understanding and discretion appoints a study. If there is foundations.

Normal indicators

  • In healthy women, the PDW norm is within 15-17%. During menstruation, the indicator falls and is 12-14%. Plus minus. The level is individual.
  • In men, the normal significance is about the same as women from 15% to 17%.
  • In children by age until 17-18 years, the platelet distribution index is within 10-14%.
  • During pregnancy, the level will be about 13-20%.

Causes of raising

The increase in the platelet distribution index is spoken in cases where the number of young structures prevails over the concentration of old cells. If we talk about condition, the culprit factors can be somewhat.

Megalobal anemia

In this case, the concentration of healthy platelets is increased only at the very beginning of the disease. When the body is still able to produce normal uniform cells. This is a kind of reflex response to the need of the body in sufficient quantic units.

As soon as the deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid is enhanced, immature predecessor cells come out into the bloodstream. So-called megaloblasts. They replace both platelets and red blood cells.

Megaloblastic anemia

Without therapy, the disease carries a patient's death threat. Correction is carried out by shock doses of vitamins B.

It is important to cope with the primary pathological process. For example, if the reason for everything is insufficient absorption of substances in the digestive tract. With ulcers, colitis and other disorders.

Without etiotropic therapy, there is no point in the struggle. Read more about development mechanisms, reasons and treatment of megaloblastic anemia Read in this article .

Iron-deficiency anemia

Affects identical way. For the normal operation of the body and ripening cells, micro and macroelements are necessary.

With a lack of both the first and second, the stressful response is first happened, such as excess cell synthesis, then the process goes into the opposite extreme. The same applies to this case.

Treatment. Iron-deficiency anemia Requires iron preparations. Parenteral, bypassing the digestive tract.

Often the disease develops against the background of colitons, gastritis and other inflammatory processes. It is necessary to treat the gastrointestinal tract to normalize or accelerate the absorption of iron.

Iron-deficiency anemia

Cancer diseases (not always)

As a rule, oncology can manifest itself in two ways.

  • The first concerns the growth of PDW in blood test. Usually increasing the indicator, which means an increase in the number of shaped cells is possible only at the initial stage of the disorder. Then everything happens exactly the opposite.
  • In the extreme stages of the pathological process begins the growth of magkaryocytes. Predecessors. This is an attempt by the body to compensate for the deficit of healthy cells.

Treatment. Depends on the stage of cancer, its type and localization. As a rule, start with operational correction. Remove the modified tumor as possible.

Then the radiation and chemotherapy are prescribed. Although not always. Depends on the tissue sensitivity to such an impact.

Infectious diseases

The relative width of the platelet distribution in volume increases with an inflammatory process of infectious origin: infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi.

Begins the increased synthesis of cells. Ripen including platelets. Red blood plates indirectly participate in the immune response and work of protective forces.

The shaped cell distribution index is raised to 20%. With a long flow of pathology, weakening the body, the concentration is reduced. What immediately reflects on the PDW.

Treatment. Verified doses of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs. Non-immune, because glucocorticoids oppress the work of protective forces.

Autoimmune diseases

Cause reflex emissions of additional cells. Including from the spleen, which acts as a kind of depot, the storage of uniform structures.

Much does not matter. However, when studying the blood, the deviation of the index may be considered as an indication of the autoimmune process.

autoimmune reaction

Treatment. Glucocorticoids in adequate doses. In case of inefficiency, large concentrations of the substance are prescribed. Prednisolone, dexamethasone and more powerful analogues in need are used as preparations.

If there is no effect, cytostatic means apply. In small doses and strictly short courses.

Causes of false overestimated results

Among them:

  • Incorrect analysis.
  • Disorders of the sample processing technique.

Sometimes the patient itself can be wines. Many factors affect the final result.

Deviation occurs in the following cases:

  • Intensive physical activity. Approximately a day before the analysis of the analysis, practicing excessive mechanical activity is impossible.
  • Smoking. From him refuses a few days before the study.
  • Meal. Food must be excluded 3-4 hours before blood intake. So the results will be more accurate.
  • It is undesirable to take the analysis during menstruation, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Since the results will definitely false. Perhaps in the framework of the error.
  • Also can not be taken alcohol, overheat and transcool. About 1-2 days. Research is possible in the framework of small values. If other analyzing indicators are normal, such errors do not pay attention.

When the platelet distribution index is raised - this means that the number of young cells is greater than the number of old, waste structures. As a rule, the wines of the whole blood disease.

It often turns out that there is no pathological process and the deviation is due to the actions of the patient. Smoking, improper lifestyle.

Causes of decline

If the timetage distribution width is below the norm - this means that the volume of old, unsuitable cells in the blood in the blood than young, functionally active.

The percentage falls in several cases.

Megaloblastic anemia

As mentioned earlier, the concentration of young cells increases only at an early stage. Plus, medical errors are possible when Megaloblasts, the predecessors of mature structures perceive incorrectly.

In the later stages of the disorder, the opposite is. There are only old cells. The formula on the PDW graph is shifted to the left, towards the reduction.

Therapy is to use the drum doses of vitamins B9 and B12.

Signs of megaloblastic anemia in blood smear

Liver diseases

Pathology like hepatitis - inflammatory process or the organ cirrhosis.

The largest iron is indirectly participating in the ripening of platelets. When the violation begins, the number of healthy uniform cells falls sharply and is restored only when the organ comes to normal.

Treatment is standard. Hepatoprotectors are used: Esssential, Carsil. In subcompensated cirrhosis, transplantation is required. This is the only method of radical correction.

Cancer

The same applies to oncology. Platelet indicators are changing as soon as the tumor progresses.

The process makes the bone marrow work at the limit of possibilities. At a certain point, the body is no longer able to act as he should have.

Treatment - operation, chemo and radiation therapy.

Reception of some drugs

From the point of view of ripening platelets, red and white blood cells, especially hazardous medicines such as glucocorticoids and cytostatics. The first and second oppress the work of the body's protective forces. It is extremely dangerous. Immunosuppressors are particularly threatened.

Treatment is simple. It is enough to abandon a particular medication. On the other hand, it can be replaced with a safer analogue.

Attention:

The same applies to anti-inflammatory nasteroid origin and antibiotics. At the end, it is necessary to stimulate the function of the bone marrow.

Blood loss

Hypovolemia . In this case, the number of mature cells and old, functionally insolvent platelets is reduced. But not proportional.

As a rule, the wines of the whole injury. Consequently, young platelets will be subjected to adhesion and aggregation, and the old will remain in place, but the formal number of functionally wealthy red plates will be lower. This is a temporary phenomenon.

Treatment. Transfusion of blood, shaped it elements.

Pregnancy

The disease is understandable, not considered. Not always against the background of gestation, the number of young cells decreases. But this is possible, especially when carrying several fruits. Changing PDW indicators temporary. Special treatment is not required.

If the width of the distribution of platelets in volume is lowered, the cause in diseases of internal organs or blood loss, but drugs or natural states like pregnancy are often to blame.

Additional examinations

Auxiliary activities allow you to establish a correct diagnosis:

  • Oral hematologist survey.
  • Collect anamnesis.
  • Bone marrow puncture. Assigns to clarify the nature of pathology.

bone-brain

  • Estimation of the size of the spleen, ultrasound of the organs of the digestive tract. In parallel, explore the liver.
  • Blood biochemistry.
  • MRI or CT for need. With a contrast enhancement of Gadolinia and iodine preparations, respectively.

The question is that the cause of growth or the fall of the index is complex. Decide his doctors. Treatment is carried out by need. It is mainly etiotropic, that is, aimed at the correction of the main reason. Primary disease.

After blood delivery, it is possible to detect such designation - PDW. In the blood test, this indicator denotes the distribution and volume of platelets. This is an indicator that makes it necessary to understand, it is necessary for a person treatment or not, but all the reasons for the change of PDW should be taken into account.

What is PDW and its value for the body

PDW in blood test is the designation of the distribution of blood cells in the bloodstream. Such a study is necessary to determine the presence of some pathogenic processes in humans. Thrombocytes are inherently inhomogeneous, meet both small and large cells. There are a slightly similar value - RDW, however, it denotes the volume of erythrocytes in the bloodstream.

Platelets are an important part of human blood. When the blood vessel is damaged, they accumulate at the place of damage and thereby stop the bleeding.

If there are few of them, the person threatens the loss of a large amount of blood. If platelets, on the contrary, will be greater, it can cause the formation of thrombus, which, having broken off, can overlap the vessel. It is dangerous, since the complete overlapping of the blood current causes fissures of tissues, and in some cases death. PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table

Therefore, the PDW indicator is very important - it determines what the level of platelets in the blood is high or low. If the results are significantly rejected from the norm, together with others, not enough good analyzes, this may indicate the presence of serious diseases.

As and under what conditions is formed

PDW deciphered "Distribution of blood platelet in terms of blood." These are the smallest blood cells, their value is no more than 3-5 microns. The cells themselves have a flat and oval shape, they are transparent and are nuclear-free.

Thrombocytees have its purpose:

  • produce reactions in which trombus is formed, capable of stop bleeding in areas of damage to tissues (internal and external);
  • contribute to the growth and restoration of blood vessels, provides meals with bioactive substances;
  • eliminate the inflammatory process together with the immune complexes delivered;
  • Purification of blood (filtering) from antigens.

Platelets are formed in the bone marrow. Most of them are located in the blood vessels, smaller - in the spleen. In this organ (as well as in the liver) there is a disposal of the deceased calf, colorless. The life of platelets is 8-11 days. In this case, the synthesis of new cells occurs without interruptions. In the blood, both young and old can be in the blood.

In total, the Red Taurus have several stages of life:

  • youth; PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table
  • maturity;
  • old age;
  • irritability;
  • degeneracy.

On which stage platelet, its size depends - the longer, the less. The heterogeneity of cells in volume is also determined by PDW (heterogeneity). If the remaining cells are circulated in their usual volume, minor deviations from the norm does not mean pathology. The PDW analysis is performed immediately with the MPV - the average volume of the volume of red taurus.

Table PDW-norm

PDW - in blood test is such a value that has both its deviation and norm. PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table

A patient Norm PDW. Features
Men 15-17%
Women 15-17% During menstruation, blood for analysis does not give up. PDW during this period decreases (each woman is different). During pregnancy, the values ​​also change - with the norm by 10-20%.
Children 10-14% During the growth and restructuring of the body, the values ​​may vary, but slightly.

The predominance of old and new platelets should not be higher than 10%, otherwise the risk of blood formation increases. While the level decreases can cause large blood loss.

Symptoms of increased and reduced PDW

The symptoms of increasing or lowering the PDW in the blood depend on the disease, as a result of which the indicator deviated from the norm. This may arise for various reasons, diseases due to which PDW can decrease or increases, quite a lot.

For example, an increase in the indicator may indicate the presence of a human anemia. In this case, this will be expressed by the pallor of the skin, reduced pressure, weakness, enlarged spleen.

PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table
If PDW is reduced in blood analysis, then often a person suffers with reduced pressure

The decline can also mean different reasons, among which the lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The deficiency of these elements is expressed in the problems of the nervous system, a strong loss of hair, a tendency to depression.

Causes of increasing and lowering

PDW in blood test is such, figuratively speaking, means of determining hazardous diseases. Of course, it is impossible to rely only on the values ​​of this indicator, however, if the figure is strongly rejected from the norm, you should think about other analyzes and on complete check in general.

The reasons for increasing PDW are the following reasons:

  • oncological diseases (they change the composition of blood as a whole);
  • Other inflammation;
  • anemia;
  • Bleeding discovering after surgery.

It is not always an increase in indicators meaning serious problems. Sometimes the reason for the elementary non-compliance of the recommendations before passing the tests. Also, the value may deviate from the normal due to the reception of drugs, which are somehow affected by the composition of the blood.

Redued PDW means a small amount of cells in the bloodstream.

The discrepancy with the norm may be caused by the following reasons:

  • lack of vitamin B12 and vitamin B9; PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table
  • disorders of the liver and blood-forming organs;
  • oncology;
  • Various viruses and infectious diseases;
  • Reception of such drugs as cytostatics and others.

Women are not recommended for testing analyzes during menstruation, since all the testimony will be different from the norm, and the volume of platelets will be reduced.

However, if the cause of low PDW is not defined, should not neglect deviations from normal indicators. The reduced volume can adversely affect organs affecting their integrity.

Changes in PDW may occur as a result of improper nutrition, bad habits, physiological features of a particular body.

Indications for research

The direction for the test of blood on the analysis discharges the therapist. After inspection, he concludes whether a person takes care of his health or not. Analyzes and subsequent surveys either confirm concerns or refuted.

The patient is directed to the laboratory, where blood is being taken and a study of the material obtained is carried out. It takes time. Then all the indicators, including PDW, are issued. With the resulting laboratory research, a person returns to the therapist, and he considers the result.

The results issued by the laboratory may look like a table in which the data (the norm and the presence of the patient) is written. It can also be specifically indicated if a person has deviations.

As defined by PDW.

PDW in blood test is such a value that can change not only as a result of human pathologies, but also due to not good preparation for analysis. The volume and distribution of platelets is determined by putting blood from the finger. To get a more detailed analysis, a fence is made from veins. PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table

In order for the result to be accurate, the patient should prepare in advance:

  • For 1 distance, do not exercise to exercise (erythrocytes as a result can increase);
  • Meals are no less than 8 hours ago, the blood is best to hand over an empty stomach;
  • For 1 day, it is not necessary to eat fatty, salty or acute;
  • The liquid is received only in the form of water;
  • If possible, the day before the delivery is not worth taking medicines.

If the medication is required, it is negotiated with the doctor, and in subsequent analyzes will be taken into account the presence of drugs in the body.

A good time to pass the blood test is considered morning (before meals). Before starting the procedure, the patient should sit for several minutes (10-15) to align the pulse and calm down.

This is important because some are very in a hurry, and arrive to the laboratory in a fairly excited state. After handing it, it is immediately directed to research. Results can come within 1-3 days, it depends on the clinic.

Decipheres the results of the doctor. It defines, in the norm of PDW or not, on the table, and if there are some deviations, it is fixed. Only one volume of platelets cannot be said about the diagnosis - it is necessary to consider the remaining blood indicators and other tests.

Deciphering the results of the analysis

The decryption of PDW implies such designations as the norm, elevated level and reduced.

The norm is considered the case when old and young cells are in the bloodstream in almost the same values.

Increasing an indicator is an increase in the content of young and old platelets in the bloodstream, and indicates the presence of some kind of problem in the body. Sometimes an increase in PDW and the absence of any symptoms indicates the possible presence of genetic diseases. To check it, a full examination is held. PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table

When PDW is reduced, it means that the overwhelming part is old cells. This means that problems have arisen in the bone marrow, and new blood taurins are not developed as before.

The analysis may also show that a person has very large platelets. Undormally large cells mean the problems of the immune system. Sometimes cell size depends on heredity - some hereditary diseases affect the size of blood cells.

The study of the material can give such a result - "incomplete." This means that platelets in their calculation have merged. To continue, the study of the laboratory is adding an anticoagulant to split cells.

When platelets disagree with its norm, and the reason for the deviation is unclear, an additional study is appointed, where all materials for malignant processes, infections and other pathologies will be considered in more detail.

With what pdw need to consult a doctor

If the results of the laboratory study showed a high or low PDW value - this is a reason to refer to the therapist. The doctor will examine the existing results, and it can ask related questions, after which the direction will be written to other tests. PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table

Do not forget that the reason for the increase can be non-compliance with the rules for preparing procedures and the reception of medicines. If changes in indicators lies in this, then the person is sent to the re-election of blood.

How to bring PDW to normal

PDW in blood test is such a value in which it is impossible to say for the diagnosis. Before starting to bring platelets to the norm, it is necessary to understand for what reason they moved away from the normal state. Therefore, to begin with, you should know your diagnosis. Only then the doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment - the course of medicines, hardware therapy and other.

Separate attention is paid to oncological diseases. If the patient was delivered this diagnosis, treatment implies special treatment (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow cell transplantation).

Before applying any means, a person should consult with a hematologist. If the problems have arisen in a child, all necessary for the treatment of the fund will write a pediatrician.

Medications

In the case when PDW in the blood is lowered, the doctor may prescribe the following drugs:

  • Aspirin;
  • Clopidogrel;
  • Thrombo ass.

These medicines are able to dilute blood, both for a short time and for a longer.

When necessary, on the contrary, reducing the indicator, such drugs can be assigned: PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table

  • Vikasol;
  • Ditinon;
  • Sedokor.

If a person has survived such a procedure as chemotherapy, a normal PDW is restored by taking hormonal drugs.

You should not resort to medicines without a consultation with a doctor - the effect of medicines may be unexpected and cause even more problems.

Folk Methods

Folk medicine will not replace full-fledged treatment, but can be an additional way to bring health in order.

Good home remedies during the recovery period after transferring operations.

One of the most popular recipes for the restoration of the PDW norm is a ginger-honey mixture, the recipe of which is very simple:

  1. The ginger root is rubbed into the toss and mixed with honey in equal shares.
  2. The resulting mixture is removed in the refrigerator for 3 days.
  3. Throughout the course (10 days), this folk remedy needs to be kept in the cold. It is also impossible to heat honey - because of this, all its nutritional properties are lost.
  4. The tool is accepted as follows: 1 tbsp. Eat on an empty stomach. It is important to monitor the body's reaction, since both of these products are strong allergens. To begin with, it is worth taking 1 tsp.

Even before taking folk remedies, we must consult with the doctor, since it is possible to deteriorate the state, the occurrence of allergies and other side effects. If the condition has become worse, you need to immediately stop receiving home instruments.

Other methods

There are quite a lot of other methods of treatment of malaise. First, it should be noted a diet that the doctor can assign for speedy recovery. Depending on which PDW (low or elevated), products are selected.

So, with a high value, you should pay attention to:

  • berries: currants, cranberries, rosehip;
  • bitter chocolate; PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table
  • lemon, ginger, garlic;
  • Linen oil and seed.

Under low performance in the patient's nutrition, such products can be added:

  • eggs;
  • Red lean meat;
  • sesame;
  • Cereals (buckwheat, rice);
  • beet.

Mandatory in the diet of the patient must be present B12 and C - they contribute to the restoration of blood composition. Vitamins can be taken as vitamin complexes by adding them to dietary power. Usually, the course of vitamins is 30 days.

The clinics also use hardware therapy in the form of blood purification by separator apparatus. This device delays blood tales, thereby reducing PDW. Doctors additionally give recommendations, thanks to which, after recovery, it is possible to maintain normal blood indicators.

They are simple enough:

  • Mandatory consumption of sufficient amount of clean water (up to 2 l); PDW in blood test. What it is, the norm and deviation is increased / lowered. Table
  • prevent physical overvoltage, for the patient there will be sufficient women and exercises.
  • Compliance with a diet that suits the body by all the necessary elements and imposes blood condition;
  • Reduce the consumption of medication preparations, especially if they were taken thoughtlessly.

These recommendations will help a person to maintain normal indicators and exclude the re-emergence of pathologies.

Possible complications

Ignoring the results of laboratory research can lead to undesirable consequences. If the reason was non-compliance with the rules before passing or the presence of menstruation, pregnancy, then it is not worth worrying.

However, serious diseases can be hidden for the abnormalities from the PDW norm, which should not be neglected. Without a proper examination and treatment, the disease will progress and ultimately lead to a fatal outcome or disability.

Disorderly use of medicines without appointing a doctor can also cause complications and aggravate the situation. If something was not normal in the analyzes, you should immediately turn to the therapist.

PDW thrombocming index (platelet distribution width of their volume) is an important indicator in blood test, and the discrepancy with a normal value may mean the presence of pathogenic processes in the body. Such an analysis, as a blood delivery, gives a clear idea of ​​the volume of platelets, and also makes it possible to understand whether further surveys and treatment are necessary.

Article clearance: Mila Freidan

Video about platelets in blood analysis

Elena Malysheva will tell about platelets in the analysis:

Clinical, or overall blood test refers to the easiest, inexpensive and at the same time informative laboratory diagnostics that allow the doctor to receive a primary idea of ​​the patient's health.

It is prescribed in the overwhelming majority of cases both within the framework of primary surveys and to assess the quality of the therapy. In addition, no preventive medical examination is required without this method. PDW in blood test, as, however, all other indicators is of great interest to the doctor conducting an inspection and evaluating the general physical status of the subject.

Pathological changes in this parameter often indicate the presence of a sufficiently large number of different pathologies, which, in the absence of proper therapy, can lead to sad consequences.

What does the PDW indicator mean?

The PDW abbreviation is decrypted as the width of the distribution of platelets, that is, their possible fluctuations in volume. In the analysis forms, it is denoted as a platelet distribution index. These cells are the most microscopic in size, if they compare them with other components of the bloodstream, and do not exceed 2-5 microns.

Platelets are also called blood records, which comes from the English word Platelets, and is associated with their oval flat form having small protrusions in the form of thickens. They are transparent, do not contain kernels and perform several functions for the human body, including:

  • The release of factors ensuring blood clotting and forming blood clots in places of damage to the integrity of the outer or internal soft tissue structures.
  • Production of growth factors aimed at restoring the vascular walls of the bloodstream, their saturation of the necessary biologically active components.
  • Transportation of immune complexes to the localization sites of inflammatory processes in order to relieve them.
  • Filtering the blood fluid from antigens that ceased to exist as a result of a compound with antibodies.

Reference! The production of flat nuclear-free blood tapes is made by the main blood-made organ - bone marrow. The prevailing amount of platelets, which is about 80%, circulates in the bloodstream, and a smaller part - approximately 20% is constantly present in the spleen. In it, and partially in the liver is the disposal of narrow platelets. At the same time, their life cycle is completely underwritten - only about 8-12 days.

The formation and liquidation of these cells, as well as the remaining uniform blood microparticles occurs continuously. Therefore, simultaneously in the circulatory system there are cells staying at various stages of their development. The vital cycle of platelets, for example, consists of five steps:

  • Stage of youth
  • maturity period
  • Phase old age,
  • stage of irritability
  • The moment of degeneration.

On which stage of formation is a platelet, its volume directly depends, while newly formed cells differ from the rest of the larger. As you mature and transition to the following stages (especially closer to aging), they decrease in size. The PDW indicator allows you to estimate the width of the distribution of these cells by volume and their heterogeneity. In other words, this coefficient characterizes platelet heterogeneity.

Thrombocytes

The main characteristics of thrombocyte

The indicator in the form of general blood testing form is displayed as a percentage ratio and is indirect. From which it is necessary if the values ​​of the remaining blood cells have unchanged indicators, then non-critical deviations of platelets are not considered as a sign of the presence of pathologies in the body. In this case, this coefficient is usually estimated in parallel with the MPV parameter, which allows to determine the average volume of nuclear-free cells.

Normal indicators

In people who do not have problems with coagulation, regardless of age, most platelets in the bloodstream should be kept in a mature form, because at this stage they are capable of performing their main purpose - to carry out normal activity aimed at blood clotting. The permissible deviation of the quantitative indicator of mature platelets should not exceed 10%, both towards the reduction and increase.

Excessive excess of normal parameters means a high probability of formation of thromboms, which lead to the purchase of vessels and then to the development of various pathological processes. And too low platelet indicators are a direct path to abundant blood loss, which is no less dangerous states for human life and human health.

The PDW rate in children under 18 years of having no diseases associated with blood coagulation is 10-15%. In adults, this index should not leave the interval 15-17%. Significant deviations from generally accepted parameters in almost all situations are noted as a result of functional violations of a body or system requiring immediate medical care.

Increase the coefficient

If the PDW decryption indicates an increase in values ​​is a direct sign of the significant heterogeneity of the described cells by volume. And, accordingly, such a state of blood fluid can lead to dangerous consequences. Gradual clogging of capillaries, and then larger vessels causes blood circulation difficulties, which entails even greater thrombosis. The so-called closed circle is obtained.

The result of this state may be a set of pathologies, ranging from a violation of metabolic processes in the bloodstream and ending with heart disease (myocardial infarction) or tombami in the brain (stroke).

Inlevance, indicators may be in the following situations:

  • Bleeding due to surgical operations or injuries lead to an increase in platelets concentrations, which is due to their increased production. This is required for the speedy restoration of the normal blood formula.
  • Anemia causing oxygen starvation, as a result of which nuclear-free blood cells are subjected to various types of deformations.
  • The pathology of the oncological nature leading to systematic damage to all uniform elements of blood, including platelets. This, in turn, causes a change in their volume, and, consequently, the width of the distribution in directly the most weight of blood.
  • Inflammatory processes leading to an increase in the number of cell data, and as a result, the growth of the PDW indicator. A parallel increase in leukocytes can only mean one thing - the development of inflammation is obvious!
PDW in blood

Causes of PDW Deviations

It should be aware if PDW is increased, then not in all absolutely cases it will mean the presence of any serious deviations in the body. The reasons for this may be the most banal, for example, non-compliance with the elementary rules for preparing for blood test or directly by its fear of the medical staff of the laboratory.

Therefore, it is necessary before passing the analysis to consult with a doctor about all possible subtleties to reduce the risks of obtaining unreliable results and re-analysis to the maximum. First, you need to know that blood is only surrendered on an empty stomach, that is, between the last meal and the fence of the biomaterial must pass at least 10-12 hours.

Secondly, it is necessary to eliminate the day before the study, excessive physical exertion and, if possible, psycho-emotional. Thirdly, it is necessary to refrain from the reception of any drugs, even if it is multivitamin complexes, having previously discussed their abolition for several days. Strict adherence to all listed activities will allow the doctor to see the full picture of the patient's blood state.

Reduced values

If the UAC indicates a decrease in the described parameter, then at the same time it is a sign of platelet smallness. The low coefficient of the platelet index is not always considered as a forerunner or a symptom of various kinds of pathologies.

It is necessary to take into account that in women with menstruation PDW is sometimes lowered. In addition, the decrease in the indicator may occur due to an unhealthy lifestyle, poor-quality or unbalanced nutrition, as well as individual physical characteristics of the body.

Low index values ​​are observed in situations such as:

  • diseases of blood-forming organs;
  • oncological diseases;
  • radioactive irradiation;
  • Functional liver disorders;
  • viral and bacterial infections;
  • receiving cytostatic drugs;
  • DVS and myelodsplastic syndrome;
  • anemia against the background of vitamin deficiency in 12 either folic acid.
Cigarettes and alcohol

An unhealthy lifestyle often leads to a change in blood composition and various pathologies.

Myelodsplastic syndrome is one of the reasons for the reduction of PDW - these are diseases, as a result of which the bone marrow is affected, which leads to a smaller development of all uniform components of blood, including platelets. The decrease in the indicator is also noted in the formation of metastatic foci in the bone marrow.

Chronic hepatitis often becomes the reason for the reduction of this coefficient, which means that the doctor, suspecting such a liver disease, must prescribe a patient to undergo a biochemical blood test. This will determine the concentration of bilirubin, and when hepatitis it will be high.

Attention! The sharp and at the same time a strong decrease in platelet numbers, as well as their distribution in the volume of blood, is considered no less dangerous state for human life and human health than an increase in the indicator. Such a change leads to the loss of the integrity of the organs not only the blood, but also other functional systems.

At the same time, if as a result of decryption analysis, it turned out that the parameter studied is increasingly not worth neglected by this circumstance. It should be necessary to normalize its values ​​and in the future try to control them, as well as take measures to maintain at the proper level.

For the most accurate analysis results, two indexes are used to characterize PDW. This is an SD (standard deviation) and CV (variation coefficient). PDW-SD and PDW-CV provide the ability to maximize the heterogeneity of platelets, which helps in making a diagnosis solution. These two criteria are necessarily taken into account when deciphering the results of the UAC, especially if any deviations are detected in the number or distribution of platelets.

Preventive actions

Maintain the blood indicators at the proper level maybe everyone is not difficult. Initially, you should not forget that the main aspect of normal well-being is absolutely for all people is a healthy lifestyle. When complying with a few simple rules, from day to day, the body will be delighted with its excellent indicators not only the blood, but also of all other functional systems.

So, prevention measures aimed at maintaining the following PDW indicator. During the day, adhere to the right drinking mode. After all, the blood is more than 90% composed of plasma, and it, in turn, is updated and has the ability to circulate only under the condition of continuous admission to the human body of pure drinking water.

It is necessary to eat, and their diet is exclusively from high-quality products that contain enough minerals, vitamins and other beneficial substances. Regularly make hiking or cycling. You can just walk in the fresh air at least 2 hours in places where many trees are growing: in squares, parks, forest belts, etc.

Try to avoid stressful states and other psycho-emotional unrest of negative nature. Physical classes must be non-intensive, that is, it is impossible to overduely overwork, and after overvoltage, you need to restore well. Do not take any drugs without prior consultation with your doctor, as it can cause side effects that have adversely affecting health.

The conditions necessary to maintain health are actually quite simple and easily fulfilled. But at the same time they carry huge benefit for all functional systems of the human body. That is why only simply adhering to them, you can prevent the development of dangerous violations in its activities.

Healthy lifestyle

Proper lifestyle will help keep the body healthy to the oldest

Conclusion

After deciphering the analysis materials and their interpretation, the doctor compares them with the present symptoms and complaints that the patient presents during the survey. In doubtful cases, when the reasons for deviations of the width of the distribution of platelets, the doctor fails to understand, most likely, additional surveys will be required.

In this case, patients need to be remembered that it is impossible to resort to self-treatment and abandon additional diagnostic techniques, if signs of deviations are insignificant. Especially important to the pallerism, if changes in the blood are found in the child. After all, at any time, the clinical picture can be aggravated and cause the development of complications that will be treated much more difficult.

If currently does not bother, it is enough to periodically undergo a prophylactic examination, which, as a rule, is accompanied by the passage of the UAC and several other diagnostic techniques. Only in this case it is safe to say that health condition is under regular and thorough control, which does not give the development of a single chance!

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