The art of cultivation and care of the bonsai tree is one of the oldest, millennium, the technique of growing decorative plants. True, for the past century, the technique, and the principles of the creation of miniature trees changed extremely strongly - but it only contributed to an increase in the popularity of technology. The technology of growing bonsai is quite simple, special efforts and financial investments do not require, but it requires an outstanding patience and takes a lot of time.
From China to Japan
"Although the main development of the science on how to grow a bonsai tree, she got in Japan, it was not there, and in China more than two thousand years ago"
According to widespread solar opinions, bonsai are just dwarf trees grown in roommates. The reality as usually happens is quite far from the usual ideas about it: Bonsai is not just creativity and even real art, this is a whole philosophy! Following the main principles of which allows you to grow strongly reduced, but the most real copies of ordinary tall trees.
Bonsai is real art
Although the main development of the science on how to grow bonsai tree, she got in Japan, it was not there, and in China more than two thousand years ago. Nevertheless, it was the Japanese that only over the past six centuries have managed to improve and systematize the cultivation of miniature plants, elegant and in housing at a minimum of space. It is thanks to these qualities, the bonsai trees have become exemplary in the megalopolis of the XX and the current, XXI century.To the contents ↑
From Japan - to Europe
The relatively complex Japanese technology of cultivation and care of the Bonsai tree was adapted by Europeans to their capabilities, and today anyone can grow their micro-tree. And the village, though miniature, but the most present bonsai has a barrel and a developed root system, despicable branches, a tendency to a seasonal decade. It also flowers and fruits in its time; But, unfortunately, has a much smaller term.
Micro-tree can grow anyoneTo the contents ↑
In accordance with the size of an adult plant, Bonsai is customary to divide into several categories:
- Tiny (micro) - plants with a height of less than 5 cm;
- Miniature - Thaws height from 5 to 15 cm;
- small (small) - not higher than 0.3 m;
- Medium - plants can reach a height of 0.6 m;
- Large - the height of miniature trees is comparable to the height of common houseplants, but does not exceed 1.2 m.
The last two types of bonsai are considered relatively large plants and are quite complex in care, micro-trees are also not distinguished by ease of cultivation. That is why miniature and small trees have become the greatest popularity - exotic for European events, but simple in content. It is that who beautifully reflect the beauty of the plant world, having a fragile elegance and perfectly fit into any interior.
Bonsai perfectly fit into any interiorTo the contents ↑
Basics of Bonsai Growing Technology
The process of growing bonsai from seeds at home can be sufficiently long and in any case takes years. First of all, it all depends on seeds - some breeds they germinate for several years, and only with careful compliance with certain climatic conditions. The most unpretentious and suitable for beginner bonsai trees are generally accepted pines and ficuses - their seeds can germinate in the most "Spartan" conditions.
Bonsai ficus is suitable for beginners
Growing from the seeds of a young sprout of the bonsai tree and the care of it is the most important stage of plant formation. During this period, it must be regularly ventilated and water, and after the appearance of the fourth real sheet - to transplant to a more voluminous pot. After a couple of months, the tree can already begin to feed mineral fertilizers. In winter, the plant has rest period, so the feeding and watering should be limited to a minimum, the best place to potted with bonsai at this time is the windowsill.
Adult bonsai tree needs constant lighting and humidity adjustment. For this, if necessary, additional backlight is satisfied and the foliage spraying is applied.To the contents ↑
How to grow a bonsai tree with a beautiful crown
Before growing a bonsai tree from seeds, it is desirable to think about the formation of the crown of the tree. To fix the branches of the village in the desired position, the usual wire is used - it can be superimposed both directly on the branch and play the role of stretching. A specific method of application is determined in each particular case individually, but in general both are equivalent.
The most complex and time-consuming surgery in the cultivation of bonsai from seeds at home is the formation of the crown of coniferous trees: to properly perform this operation, it is necessary to fix with a wire each, without exception, twig. Including - and the top escape. With deciduous breeds, the situation is much easier - to give the skeleton of the crown of the desired pattern, it is possible to apply a simple trimming, using a wire in the most extreme cases.
Wire tree crown formation schemeTo the contents ↑
Overlaying or pulling?
How to grow bonsai at home with a beautiful exterior?
On gladkocular trees (elms, for example, linden, beech), the wire must be tied very carefully and for short time, otherwise the traces will remain either, either it will turn into wood. In plants with a rough, rough bark of damage to overgrow themselves quickly, but it does not impossible to bring the wire - such scars should not be eliminated. Wire on the branches must be applied as free and regularly check the ease of its movement.
At home, with proper care, the bonsai crown shape stabilizes in about three months, and after this period, the wire can be removed. Since the young bonsai - "design" is very fragile, the wire must not be promoting, but cut off with plaques or side.
Wire on the branches should be applied as free
In the absence of at least minimal experience of tied wire detentions to the branches, it is best to pre-train on street plants suitable size. The best wire for garter - the cockedure aluminum sold in specialized stores; Such wire can also be "mined" in people engaged in the maintenance and repair of electric motors or transformers. Wire thickness should not be more than a third of the thickness of the trimmed branch.
It should not be used steel wire - it is very fast rust and too tough. The correct care for the bonsai tree requires the tapping of the branches in such a way that their intersection is expelled - this is considered unacceptable. Naturally, such plants with a non-formed crown are not set off - this is considered a bad tone.
Avoid crossing branchesTo the contents ↑
Formation of thick twigs
How to grow at home bonsai with a canonical crown if the border of the wire delay does not give the opportunity to give the branch the right direction? In such situations you have to use special metal brackets. Their condition must also be constantly monitored and rearranged when rustling in the wood. This technique is necessary when the direction of growth of powerful, has enough thick branches.
Staples to change the direction of growth of branches
When planning one or another method of forming the crown, it should be borne in mind that although the wire is delayed and the easiest method, but it allows you to just ask the desired direction of growth of the branch. It is impossible to change it in this way. To change the form, it should be used to attach a sufficient thick wire along the entire branch.To the contents ↑
Methods for forming a drawing of branches
Care and growing from the seeds of the present bonsai lasts for many years, and the plant at the same time acquires a completely natural look of the old tree - but time and patience is not enough for everyone. The solution to this problem is quite simple - the young church can be quite artificially, with the help of simple agrotechnical techniques. The easiest of them is the removal of the bark from the sections of the wood. The tool for this operation is used the most primitive - sharp knife or tubing for cutting wires. And at least minimal practical experience, naturally.
Young tree can be artificially
The main condition - it is impossible to completely remove the cover with the twigs that should remain alive: a thin strip of the bark should pass along the whole branch. It will serve as a shipping artery for a coating and lead to the painshche of wood. The branches that are planned to make dead and dry, can be cleaned from the bark completely, the naked wood is not forbidden to process the knife - but it should be done carefully. So how do you grow from seeds at home artificially aged bonsai?To the contents ↑
Specificable about the techniques
"It is recommended to pay attention to the pattern of natural growth of branches - although when cultivating from seeds at home Bonsai is forced forced, it should look as much as possible"
The described techniques require the presence of certain skills from the performer, therefore, in the absence of experience, it is better to work first at the natural plants. At the same time, it is recommended to pay attention to the pattern of natural growth of branches - although when cultivated from seeds at home, Bonsai is forced forced, it should look as much as possible.
How to grow from seeds artificially aged bonsai at home? The appropriate composition can be planned, watching the lightning drops or drought by trees, can be prompted and buried a good idea.
In the traditional art of cultivation and care of the bonsai tree, the above-described techniques for the formation of the drawing of the branch and the trunk obtained the names of the balls and sabami.
This is the way the method of artificial aging of wood by removing large sections of the bark and the subsequent processing of the bare branch with a knife. Beginners should not apply this technique to work with rare and expensive plants - the result can lead to large financial losses. Experience is always better to gain on plant processing simpler.
Bonsai in the technique of balls
This technique allows the formation of plants with split into several parts with a barrel, imitating lightning from them. Such plants are very rarely solid, but with due approach they look very impressive and expressive. Lightning at home is difficult to use it difficult, therefore the formation of splitting is carried out through wedges - for their insertion in the trunk in the right places, small slots are made. A tree with such an operation almost does not suffer.
Spectacular bansai in Sabami technique
Within the framework of the Sabami technology, in accordance with the canons of Bonsai, the use of "blanks"-split zippers found in the nature of "blanks" is allowed. Since their height often turns out to be very large and in the bonsai scope does not fit, such plants need to be cut to acceptable sizes, but with the preservation of the required form. In the future, for the formation of the tree, the technique of balls can be used.
Tools for work on the formation
The optimal set for processing and forming bonsai branches is as follows:
- knife cutter;
- A set of knives designed for wood thread;
- Small pliers - they are very convenient to remove the bark;
- concave plugs (booms);
- non-abrupt sandpaper;
- Wood bleach;
- Set of paints of "wooden" shades or verse wood.
Tools for processing and molding branch branches
To facilitate the work, it is quite possible to use suitable power tools - but only in the presence of experience with it. Beginners use it is not recommended - one careless movement can be easily ruined in many months of work!To the contents ↑
Methods of growing bonsai from seeds at home
There are several techniques available to novice fans of bonsai and allowing themselves to grow a miniature tree on ordinary home conditions. They do not require special efforts and investments, the main thing here is the presence of artistic taste.
This is the optimal option for those who do not have experience in growing plants. With this method, the plant is grown from seeds collected in the natural habitat of the selected tree. Some "seeds" simultaneously landed, after their germination, the most suitable sprout is selected, from which Bonsai is formed.
Bonsai Misa grown from sprout
In this case, the tree is grown from a cutting or a decomposition of the desired plant. Technique is simple, but it is not suitable for all types of trees. It consists in performing the following simple operations:
- At the bottom of the cutting or a tank, the bark cut a little near the place;
- The scene is processed by the root stimulant;
- The treated area turns into a natural moss or its analogue and turns into a polyethylene film;
- The cutlength prepared in this way is laid on three-month storage in place with the necessary climatic and temperature conditions.
Bonsai Toriki is grown from a cutter
How to care for such bonsai at home? During all three months, the "blank" should be time to periodically - it should not disregard in any case.
The method of growing bonsai, allowing not to bother with the germination of seeds. An early spring in nature is a suitable plant and is preparing for a transplant - a stem is drowning up to the start of the root system. Then it is necessary to gain patience and wait a couple of months - during this time an air root should appear on the bare area. After that, the sprout is digging (in the ground its root system is cut off, but in reasonable limits!) And transplanted into the pot. After that, it is necessary to wait until the plant takes on a new place - this process can also last long enough. And only then you can proceed to the formation of bonsai.
The method of growing bonsai yamadori
A method that allows you to almost immediately begin the formation of a miniature tree, but requiring certain financial investments: a ready-made plant of the required type is purchased in the nursery. It is trimmed and planted into the corresponding pot idea.
You can purchase ready-made bonsai
A variant of this method is to purchase a ready-made bonsai and re-forming it in accordance with your ideas.To the contents ↑
Pot and sad
The pot, as you know, the "object is simple" - but not in the science on how to care for bonsai at home. In it, it not only plays the role of a plant for a plant, the pot must be organic and the natural detail of the composition as a whole. It is primarily about compliance with the proportions - the optimal ratio of the heights of pots and plants 2: 3, a higher capacity in the canon does not fit. Material Pot - necessarily well burned ceramics, to ensure air access to roots in the bottom there must be drainage holes.
The pot must be organic part of the composition
The color solution can be any, but necessarily monophonic; This concerns both tanks for coniferous trees and hardwood. In the latter case, however, bright paints are not taken - especially if the tree is flowering.
The shape of the pot is traditionally chosen oval for single trees and rectangular for cascade, multi-level compositions; The width is selected slightly more than the minimum possible. For multi-bonsai and plants with a thick crown, pots are selected, on the contrary, with a large width and low height. Roughly speaking - "basins".
For a single bonsai pot chosen oval shape
To ensure proper care of the bonsai tree at home, the ground must necessarily include elements such as washed and calcined in order to disinfect sand, natural clay and organic components - humus and disinfeced peat.To the contents ↑
Bonsai care features
Miniature trees grow in not the most familiar conditions for themselves, so they need third-party care throughout the term of their life. Bonsai care rules at home are quite simple and easy, but must be respected constantly and strictly - especially it concerns irrigation and ventilation .
Lighting and accommodation
Most plants grown in indoor conditions need additional lighting, and bonsai trees are no exception. They need bright light, so do not need to be placed near any items that can cause the shading of the plant. The best location for bonsai is a windowsill on the Eastern or West window. For additional highlighting in the autumn-winter period and under cloudy weather, fluorescent lamps or LED phytosvetites should be eliminating the likelihood of plants overheating.
Bonsai needs additional lighting
Temperature and humidity
Traditional for residential premises The low level of humidity for plants Bonsai is too small in ninety-nine cases from a hundred. To create the necessary microclimate, you can place a pot with a plant on a water-filled tray or at least put in the immediate vicinity of the composition open wide water container. Very useful systematic morning spraying of the crown of a tree - but at the same time you need to follow, to dry the sun to dry.
Keep track of soil moisture level
How to care for bonsai at home in winter? At this time of the year, the air temperature on the windowsill (about 20 degrees Celsius) is quite comfortable for tropical plants bonsai, but high for subtropical species of trees - they are enough 15 degrees. For trees, seasonally dropped foliage, and most coniferous breeds, even such a relatively low temperature is too high - for such plants in winter it should not be more than 5 degrees Celsius.
Watering and subordinate
Watering should be fairly regular, but the mooring of the soil is extremely undesirable. The land must be wet through the thicker, but not wet. Summer watering is rich in winter. It is best to use the water to use Tluu or a sparkling plumbing - but necessarily warmed, especially for tropical and subtropical plants.
Facing when careing for bonsai is carried out taking into account the main principle of growing these plants - their growth should be slowed down, and it becomes complicated by the smallness of the pot. It is necessary to feed the trees - but the dosage should be calculated very carefully. The main elements made - potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus, the proportions are selected in accordance with the type of wood and the conditions of its natural habitat.
Need to regularly feed trees
We begin to feed the spring when the growth of the tree is activated, and carried out monthly until June-July. Then there is a break for one or two months, and with the beginning of the fall, the feeding is renewed and continues until the plant is leaving during the rest. It is very convenient to carry out the completion of complex mineral fertilizers - the frequency and amounts of its use are usually indicated on the package.
Types of trimming for the formation of the crown
Pruning to create the right drawing of the bonsai crown differs from similar operations for conventional trees only with scales. The same techniques and the same types are used:
- trimming trunk and large, skeletal branches;
- trimming branches in order to form the desired crown volume;
- cutting out young processes ("Lambs");
- the caption of processes allowing to control the formation and growth of the branches;
- trimming root system.
The best trimming time is since the beginning of the spring and before the end of the summer. Evergreen plants can be crossed year-round. But it should be borne in mind that the very first trimming of a tree sprout can only be done after he appears from five real leaves.
Pruning is made since the beginning of the spring and until the end of the summer
When plants are found in plants, the signs of diseases or pest appearance, it is necessary to take action immediately, processing trees with appropriate drugs.To the contents ↑
Passion for the art of growing bonsai is not just a hobby, it is a real research work that allows you to significantly increase your knowledge in the field of crop production and agrotechnology. And the joy from the contemplation of an independently grown, elegant and spectacular tree - priceless! Upon the achievement of certain skills and the set of necessary experience, it is quite possible to monetize their skills.
Photo Gallery - BonsaiTo the contents ↑
VideoPosted by: Mikhail Bond
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How to grow bonsai at home
There are different ways to grow in the house a dwarf tree:
- Start "from scratch", through seed sowing:
- reproduce the root cutlets;
- Use a seedling from the park, forest or nursery.
How to grow bonsai from seeds
Seeds of plants intended for the cultivation of bonsai, in most must undergo special training before sowing - stratification. Her task is to artificially create conditions for their hibernation.
In moistened sand or moss lay seeds. Capacity with them put in the refrigerator for several months. To prevent the diseases of future seedlings, seeds are required before landing.
After the end of the processing of seeds, they are sown in a low container. It must necessarily have drainage holes. The bottom is covered with drainage and moistened soil. On its slightly compacted and aligned surface place seeds. Make it so that after shoots each spruce there was enough space and there was enough light. Time sowing should be such that the plants suggest spring or early summer. By winter, they need to grow up and strengthen.
Alternatively, you can sow seeds into open soil and raise seedlings. Sevings sprinkle with a substrate or slightly into it. The soil is moistened with a solution of mangalling of weak pink color. Capacities are covered with glass or film and exhibit in heat into a light place, but without a straight sun. Such a greenhouse should be regularly ventilated. Without this, a dangerous mold appears on the soil with a strong moisture.
As the seedlings grow, their ventilation increases, and then the glass or film is finally cleaned. Sprouts with 3-4 leaves are peeling into a container with a distance between them about 5 cm or in separate pots, cutting the roots. As the seedlings grows, the peer procedure must be repeated several times, it affects the development of the root system. After a month and a half after diving, the plants are first feeding. Seeds of local trees can be absorbed in the fall, as in natural conditions.
How to grow bonsai from a cutter
Many trees - "Parents" of the dwarf trees are well multiplied with a cutlets. It is made of a thin branch (the recommended thickness must be no more than 5 millimeters in the cutting, and height is about 10 centimeters), cutting it at an angle of 45 degrees.
How to grow bonsai from a seedling
In places where the tree is growing to bonsai, dig a seedling with a height of about 15 centimeters. Specialists advise to take a little soil to landing from there, where the seedling grew. Root it with scissors to be left not more than 7-10 cm.
After that, the branches begin to trim, leaving only those that are horizontally located.
Features of growing pine bonsai from seeds
Growing pine bonsai from seeds is a rather troublesome business. First, it is necessary to collect a good sowing material (seeds). Secondly, to properly prepare them for landing. And, thirdly, pick up the containers for the extension and for the subsequent transference of seedlings to a permanent place.
To grow pine from the seeds, you will have to spend more time than from purchased or duck up in the forest seedlings
However, this allows you to start forming the root system and crowns in the early stages of the growth of the tree that for pine bonsai is important
To obtain seeds, they are taken overwhelmed cones of a coniferous plant and stored in a warm, dry place until scales are dispersed. As soon as it happens, it will be possible to extract seeds
It is important to use the seed material of the current or last year, since the seeds of some conifers will not retain their germination
Formation of bonsai tree
To grow the right bonsai, you need to purchase the necessary skills, skills and knowledge. It is very complex art, but, nevertheless, in its own way, fascinating and eastern mysterious. Seeds, cuttings and gag can be used for landing. Including for their cultivation take the wild-growing trees of small sizes, growing in strict wild environments. Severe frosts, strong winds and long droughts stop or slow down the growth of the tree. Approximately the same tactics of influences applies in the art of bonsai.
Roots and branches of dwarf trees are cut along a special system, and the branches are also twisted and tied with wire from copper. Unnecessary kidneys, shoots and leaves are removed, and the tree trunks can delay or bend so that they have the form chosen by the owners. Bonsai growth slows down with the following influences:
Compress its roots. Minimum capacity of pots. Rough soil, where there is almost no nutrient trace elements. Lack of necessary nitrogenous substances. Impact wind. Impact heating. Exposure to sharp cooling.
With an excess of light and insufficient number of nitrogenous substances in plants in a wild medium, chlorophyll grains stick together and dying. Plants living in the conditions of a swamp where high humidity receive protection from solar excess - they have a leathery sheets of small-dimensional sizes and a sufficient thick cuticle.
In addition to roset restrictions, Bonsai has other rules that relate to the form chosen for wood. Naturalness and the corresponding rules form are the two components of the appearance of wood-dwarf. There are many generally accepted types of bonsai, differing from each other by the form, and sometimes sizes. And although according to the general law, the height of the tree should not exceed thirty centimeters, now specialists in this area began to grow trees and larger.
Trucks used also affect the general view of the resulting bonsai tree. For example, a coniferous breed will delight the eye all year round, as it does not have leaves that could fall. Bonsai, distinguished by beautiful fruits or flowers, will show himself in all its glory at a certain time of the year. There are even species that have the most bright color of the leaves at the autumn time.
Depending on the type of plant, it should be resettled every 2-3 years or more. The main reason for this is the removal of the extra roots. To save the tree from the damage to the root system of fungus, experts advise before planting plants at home to handle a pot of hot heatmanship and screaming with boiling water.
The best time for transplantation is the end of February. The roots are cleaned of soil and washed. The pot must be a little more than the former, but the depth is the same. Roots are horizontally.
After transplanting a tree watered. After 3 weeks it is feeding it. Fertilizing the soil under the bonsai is recommended by special feeders, which contain the minimum amount of substances beneficial for it. Make it every two or three weeks.
The flower is important to take into account: the plant needs food, but it is important not to overgrow it. An important task is to ensure the right watering bonsai
It is necessary to do this with the small volume of the substrate and the shallow pot. For moisturizing the substrate, irrigation or drip watering, which in the desired volume and carefully gives moisture bonsai. You can immerse the vase with a plant into a container with water to open the soil from below
An important task is to ensure the correct watering of bonsai. It is necessary to do this with the small volume of the substrate and the shallow pot. For moisturizing the substrate, irrigation or drip watering, which in the desired volume and carefully gives moisture bonsai. You can immerse the vase with a plant into a container with water to cut the soil from below.
Pour the mini-tree in accordance with the time of the year. While the vegetation lasts, it is watered actively. Since autumn, watering is reduced. For watering, use soft or disturbed water.
The temperature of 18 degrees is best suited. In the warmest months, Bonsai is brought out to a balcony or terrace. At the beginning of autumn, it is transferred to the room, this plant does not like when the temperature fluctuates sharply. In winter, it is required 10-15 ° C. At home, bonsai is arranged on a cool windowsill, closed with a dense curtain, with a constantly opened former. The tree should also save from drafts and keep away from heating devices. The straight rays of the sun are harmful to them.
Bonsai cultivation is a long and difficult process. But the creation of a tree in its taste gives invaluable experience and gives a lot of joy of flower.
Tips of experienced flowerflowers
To successfully grow bonsai at home, some recommendations should be followed.
- Planting plants in a larger pot than he needs, helps to form a strong stem.
- Every spring bonsai is definitely transplanted, while unnecessary roots are subject to removal. First year after landing, the plant is not disturbed, starting from the second eighth - transplanted annually (it is recommended to do this in April). More adults are transplanted in a year. During this procedure, you should carefully examine the root system, remove patients and dried roots.
- Two days before the alleged transplant, it is necessary to stop watering the flower, and the procedure itself is quick, because the roots of trees do not like light and clean air.
- For bonsai irrigation, the precompanied room temperature fluid should be used.
These are the secrets of the care of the tree "Banzai", which give experienced rabbing
Nothing difficult - but it is extremely important to pay attention to the plant, do not forget about watering. If you allow the impact on the "pet" draft or water it with cold water from under the tap, then the leaves will start shroud and fall
The cultivation of dwarf trees Bonsai is difficult, but allowing you to show your creative skills and create a real work of art.
How to grow bonsai (video)
Almost every tree can be raised by this method, but it is necessary to know about the popularity of one or another. For example, among the tropical most popular, Samshats, Myrtit, Abutilon, Leptospermumums, Acacia, Wisteria, are considered among the tropical most popular. Among the broad-sized bequet, ramps, maples, birch, elm, Japanese beeches and pomegranate trees. Among coniferous - fir, cypresses, ate, cedar and pine.
To bonsai bow in the house, you can choose any tree. The main thing is to know how to raise bonsai from seeds at home and determine which cult to choose to create a harmonious miniature copy.
The following varieties become popular for growing houses:
- Miniature views from 8 to 20 cm in height. Among them, preference gives: Juniper, Irgi, ate, Rhododendron;
- Varieties of trees reaching 20-30 cm in height. Here you can mention Barbaris, Field and Rock Clene, Turquish, Mountain Pine;
- Types of trees grown to a height of 30-70 cm. They are attributed to pinea ordinary, maple american, birch, hazel, elm;
- Varieties having an increased height in the range from 60 to 100 cm. Of these, they allocate a lip, larch, ash. Many make a choice in favor of the aspense or paid calene, oak, beech, black pine;
- The highest types of trees growing at a height of 100-130 cm are presented with wisterium, chestnut, plane, elderberry, acacia.
If you collect seeds from trees growing in your area (such as pine or male), it is better not to plant them in the fall, but if you want to put them in the spring, or, growing a tree, uncharacteristic for your climate, then the plant seeds will need stratify.
There is no such thing as "Special Bonsai Seeds" - Bonsai Plants are created from ordinary trees.
You can assemble seeds from coniferous or deciduous trees of your region (spruce, pine, male, oak, etc.). Seeds, like fruit types of chestnuts or acorns, easy to find in the forest.
After you collect pine, spruce or cedar cones, you need to store them in a warm place so that the seeds leaned between the separated scales.
Seeds of various types of trees can also be bought in special stores or Internet portals, where you can see the photo of all available products.
The ability to germinate seed depends on a number of factors:
- From the quality and viability of seeds;
- On ambient temperature;
- From the method of collecting and storing;
- From how much time has passed since the aging.
It is advisable to use fresh seeds that caused in this or last year; Seeds of some trees retain the germination very long.
Pine gives seeds, viable for many years
Plant seeds are biologically programmed to germinate in the native habitat when natural conditions become most favorable. For most species, this means that the seeds that will cause at the end of summer and in the fall will be at rest during the winter, and then germinate when the soil warmer.
Therefore, many seeds mature all summer, and, falling on the ground, do not grow, and winter under the snow, of course, if they do not eat birds or beasts. Especially suffering from the beasts coniferous - pine, cedar, various ate.
Very small seeds can stay on the water due to the deflection of the surface film. They need to shake in the water to see if they really swell and drown
Plastic bag with seeds are placed in the lower part of the refrigerator, where the temperature is about 4 ° C. The bag is then gradually shifted to the upper shelves in the refrigerator for two weeks until it falls to the upper shelf, where the temperature is slightly above the freezing point. For the second two-week period, the bag needs to slowly move down to the bottom of the refrigerator. After that, the seeds can be pulled out from the refrigerator and hang into the soil.
Basic rules and features
The bonsai tree should be grown under the compliance with the main agrotechnical recommendations, take into account the varietal features, the needs of the plant. Requirements for watering and lighting are different. Some cultures need to be put on the lit window sill, others clean the roaming room to protect against direct sunlight.
Bonsai is specially placed in a small capacity, since the increase in the fertile substrate leads to the growth of the root system, the formation of long shoots with large leaves. If the plant does not cut, the room flower will lose a decorative look over time.
Bonsai will turn out to grow with your own hands only with constant care. Through the tree you need to observe, timely to form the crown and shortening the roots. Inappropriate microclimate or non-compliance with natural vegetation cycles will destroy. It is impossible to break the hibernation period, if there is a selected culture.
The necessary conditions
Bonsai's indoor plant should be grown in a ventilated room when weather conditions allow you to endure outside or an open balcony. The level of air humidity must comply with the needs of the plant. Some cultures are able to grow equally well in the apartment and on the street. The house recommends to air every day, except for the winter. Unacceptably the formation of drafts. Requirements for illumination depend on the variety of the cultivated plant.
Selection of soil and pot
The soil can be inorganic, garden or fertilized reagents. Techniques to use with the preferences of the chosen culture. The soil for the bonsai requires light, transmitting air and water. To do this, you need to add drainage - gravel, bark, coolery sand, ceramic trekking, coke. Akadama is a special substrate containing certain varieties of clay, designed to grow similar plants. All components are required to prepare, disappear by a solution of mangartages, boiling water or calcination in the oven.
At home, the composition of the soil matches the variety:
- Dern, biohumus, sand in a ratio of 7: 1: 3 - blooming cultures;
- Cherry earth and sand 7: 3 - deciduous trees;
- Dern, sand 3: 2 - conifer breed.
Capacity for the bonsai should be small, shallow. Be sure to have drainage holes and layers of clay or pebbles at the bottom.
Not only the structure of the soil should ensure good air and moisture, but the container itself contains drainage. The growing plant, the more important choose a heavy container. Especially in the formation of an incorrect, inclined or cascade form. To protect against bacteria and fungi, the flower pot in front of the landing must be treated with a disinfecting solution, quivey.
Rules for the formation of the tree
Bonsai for beginners may seem complex, so it is recommended to purchase ready-made plants. If you wish, start from the very beginning, the rules of cultivation should be followed. The main ones are:
- You need to understand how an adult tree will look like.
- To achieve naturalness.
- Select the front point with which the bonsai looks best.
- Crop unnecessary shoots and leaves.
- Distribute branches evenly, with the exception of some styles.
- Leave a noticeable trunk.
- Do not plant a plant into a large container.
- To form the desired crown with a haircut and wire, constantly maintaining.
- Provide sufficient and uniform lighting from all sides.
8 Mysterious Erection
As a bonia, the plant is suitable for a plant. It has a developed root system. The edge of the erection is light, the leaves are lowered. In nature, there are miniature varieties, their length is not more than 20 cm. Other species reach 70 cm. The plant requires daily care. So that it does not grow up, it is necessary to adjust. Erestion has a brown-gray bark, on which beautiful cuts are formed. These cuts emphasize the beauty of the trunk and branches. Elesty leaves dark green, flowers - snow-white.
The plant prefers air with high humidity. When carrying out the premises, it is necessary to remove the tree, otherwise it will be subjected to drafts and sick. If the plant lacks lighting, it is necessary to place it near the lamp. The raised plant loses decorativeness, in connection with this, it is necessary to trim in a timely manner. Erection is one of the largest varieties of the bonsai. To restrain the growth, you should cut and wed up with wire.
Growing bonsai - painstaking work. If something does not work, it is better to buy a ready-made plant
To the tree did not lose shape, you need to cut it, it is important to water in a timely manner. Bonsai requires constant care, but his beauty is worth the effort spent
Stratification of seeds
In the natural environment, many cultures relieve the fruit in the fall on the ground, where they lie under the layer of leaves and snow until the spring. Artificial imitation of this process is called stratification, and is that the seeds have been kept in a cold dark place for 3-5 months - basement or refrigerator. During this period, the biological processes necessary for the development of the future plant are completed inside.
This procedure is carried out exclusively for the bones and fruits of deciduous representatives of the diesel climatic belt - oak, beech, chestnut, walnut, ash, maple, rowan. It consists of the following steps:
1. Disinfecting seeds. Destroy pathogenic fungi and bacteria on the surface of the seed will help excerct them in the sun during the week, 2-3 minute irradiation with ultraviolet lamp (suitable manicure), half-hour soaping in a warm solution of mangarten or heated up to 35 degrees 3% hydrogen peroxide.
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2. Soaking in water - can last from 6 hours to 2-3 days, depending on the size and density of the fetus, nut or bone.
3. Immersion in the substrate. Sand, peat, sawdust fall asleep into the container, are abundantly watering, the seeds are located between them, which are also covered with a loose mixture and are covered with breathable cloth (in no case with polyethylene and not a hermetic lid).
4. Withstands in a cold dark place at a temperature of + 1 ... 5 ° C - a basement is suitable, a unheated corridor, a pantry, a balcony or the warmest shelf in the refrigerator.
In the literal translation, the word "bonsai" means grown on a tray. In essence, bonsai, it is an art that implies the cultivation of a miniature copy of the tree. It arose in the late VIII century, in China, and was the main decoration of the imperial yard. Since that time, many styles arose, which differ in the structure of the barrel and crown. Bonsai trees - street, their size varies from two centimeters to one and a half meters. Even if you do not know how to grow bonsai at home, this art becomes affordable thanks to the article.
Trees for Bonsai - species and features
Some people mistakenly believe that bonsai is some kind of culture, characterized by dwarf sizes and a bizarre form. In fact, it is not. You can grow bonsai from almost any tree. The main condition is to know which culture is suitable for creating a harmonious miniature copy.
Types of trees and recommended bonsai formation sizes See below.
- Juniper, Irga, Spruce and Rhododendron 8-20 cm.
- Barbaris, Maple field and rock, turquoine, Mountain pine 20-30 cm.
- Pine ordinary, maple american, birch, hazel, elm 30-70 cm.
- Lipa, larch, ash, Maple is a clarity or paid planer, oak, beech, black pine 60-100 cm.
- Wisteria, Chestnut, Black Pine, Platan, Buzin, Acacia 100-130 cm.
Seeds liked wood can be purchased in the botanical garden, a specialized store or assemble in a city park. A good option for beginners - buy sowing material in China. Seeds of trees such as spruce, pine, fir, oak or becklets are ready for disembarking after collecting.
Seeds of other plants must be at rest for some time and stratification.
Stratification of seeds as a measure of preparing for sowing
There are seeds that are specifically prepared before landing - this is Sakura seeds. In essence, the Japanese cherry (Sakura) is the perfect material for creating bonsai. From the Seeds of Japanese Sakura, you can create real masterpieces that can hit by amazing forms. So that the plant can germinate properly, the seeds of this tree are subjected to stratification.
In fact, stratification is a process that simulates winter conditions in order to better germinate seeds. There are several ways to stratify plants:
- Cold stratification . It is necessary for seeds that need to be ripened: pine, thui or blue ate. Seeds of such plants are first soaked in a slightly warm water, and then placed in the refrigerator. In this way, artificial imitation of temperature difference in nature is produced.
- Warm stratification . Use to "awaken" seeds. The planting material is placed in warm water for several hours or days. You can also place seeds not into liquid, but on Wednesday with high humidity: wrap with a wet cloth or put in the wet coconut substrate.
- Combined stratification . It applies to maple seeds, cedar, sakura, who will germinate for a long time. Its essence lies in changing cold and warm stratification. Initially, the seeds are placed in the cold room, and immediately before landing soaked in warm water. Combined stratification is common when growing bonsai.
In addition to stratification, seeds should be subject to disinfection so that the plants are not afraid of the appearance of fungal formations. To do this, you can use a manganese solution.
This tool perfectly disinfect seeds before landing. The sowing material is soaked in pinkish water. Seed disinfection lasts from 5 days to 2 weeks. After the seeds passed stratification and disinfection, they can be planted.
Soil and Capacity for Growing Bonsai
The best soil for seeds is the coarse sand, which is written before use. This is a kind of disinfection that will not give the plant to die. It is recommended to use a wide capacity of 5 cm deep and drainage holes. Before planting sand, it is necessary to moisten well and make special grooves in which seeds will be placed.
To grow bonsai at home, it is worth taking care of the preparation of the soil and choosing the desired container. The container in which the miniature tree is grown can be of different shape and depth. Rectangle, oval, circle or polyhedron, deep or flat - the choice is really big. Remember, if the bonsai barrel will have a slope, the container for it should be more stable. In this case, give preference to deep containers or what is made of heavy material.
The coloring of the container must be calm and negligent, it will only emphasize the elegance of the plant. Moreover, the rig must match the bonsai style. If a miniature copy will have a thick crown, then it is better to choose a flat and wide container. For bonsai cascade style, a narrow and high pot is suitable, and high plant crowns will better emphasize the containers of deep, but not wide.
Before disembarking, scatter boiling water in order to destroy possible sources of fungus and bacteria.
Traditionally, bonsai is grown in a special substrate, which is called Acadama. It is a heavy soil in which there are many nutrients, a high level of moisture and is well circulating air. However, such land is rarely used in its pure form. First, in its pure form it is only in one of the prefectures of Japan, and secondly, the high concentrate of nutrients does not always have favorably affect the bonsai, especially at that time when the tree is attached to the form.
The substrate for bonsai must be responsible to several criteria: to keep moisture well, contain nutrients and provide oxygen access to prevent watering or reinforcing roots. A good substrate is mixed from grainy clay, humus and sand, in that ratio, which is suitable for each type of plant.
- Tree view and used soil.
- Falling trees. Cherry earth and sand, in a ratio of 7 to 3 (3 parts of sand and 7 parts of the turf).
- Bonsai blooming. The mixture is prepared from the turf, sand and humus, in a ratio of 7: 3: 1. Speed bonsai. Four parts of sand and 6 pieces of turf.
You can prepare the soil yourself at home. Surrous land can be accumulated in the meadow. It is only worth removing the top vegetable layer, and the upper 20 centimeters of the Earth can be used to grow bonsai.
Before applying the Earth needs to be cleaned, asking for a large source. Sand should take a river, coarse-grain. It will make the soil more loose, which will improve the circulation of air, and the moisture is better. Before use, all these components should be disinfected by warming up in the oven. Gumus is also purchased in a specialized store or order via the Internet.
Features Seeding seeds and plant care
The disembarkation produces in spring, summer or early autumn in peat pots, which are filled with a mixture of sand and peat, in a ratio of one to one. If you have nowhere to buy peat, then you can buy land for cacti and mix it with coarse sand. Such a substance will be a full replacement. Observe the following sequence of actions.
- Pour the mixture into a pot in such a way that it remains to the edge for another 3 cm.
- Add 1 centimeter of the purified turf of the earth, press the wooden circle.
- Put the seeds on the prepared surface and fall asleep their sand layer. The thickness of the layer of no more than two diameters of the seed.
- Press the wooden circle again, remove it and water the sand with water (no more than 80 ml).
- Cover the polyethylene film.
Put the pot with seeds in a dark place with a temperature of not more than 15 0C. Periodically, remove the film for venting and check if the soil did not dry. It should always be wet, but not wet.
When the first sprouts picked up polyethylene to provide air access. After the first shoots appear, remove the film from the pots and transfer to the lighted room. Make sure that the plants do not get the straight rays of the sun. After 2-3 months, it is worth cutting off the rod root on 2/3, this process calls the formation of seedlings.
In the ground, which matches the seedlings, add fertilizers. Replancing seedlings in a separate form is necessary after the sprout will grow by 10 centimeters. During this period, the sprout can be accustomed to the sunshine and at the same time not to cease to form the desired form.
According to such a scheme, you can grow sakur bonsai or Japanese pine . But some types of trees need a special approach.
Features of agrotechnics of Japanese and red maple
This tree begins to drop seeds in the fall. To grow bonsai from maple seeds, they need to subjected to stratification within 120 days. Optimal time for disembarking April or May. Sprouts appear faster, the seeds are soaked for 1-2 days in hydrogen peroxide. This measure will speed up the process of germination and secure the plant from diseases.
Bonsai from the seeds of all types of maple, especially red, you need to grow in a half - it is contraindicated with straight sunny rays. Earth for growing this species should fertilize once a month to achieve the desired level of acidity. In winter, the feed is excluded.
Features of Agrotechnology Bonsai from Lemon
It's not difficult to grow a plant from lemon seeds. Stratification in this case is not needed. Seeds for disembarkation are removed directly from the fruit. It must be ripe, but without external damage. You can sit down at once a few bones.
- Prepare a pot and soil according to the principle described above.
- At the bottom of the tank, make 1-2 cm drainage.
- Fill out the home prepared soil.
- Lemon seeds place 1.5 cm depicure.
- Pot wrap film.
Indoors where the seeds with seeds will be kept at least 18 0C. With a periodicity of 2-3 days, remove the film and smear the surface with water slightly. Do not overeat so that the formed roots do not rot.
Features of agrotechnology cedar
From cedar seeds easier to grow bonsai, they are suitable for beginner gardeners. Stratification of the sowing material has two stages.
- Lasts 6 days. Seeds are placed in water with a temperature of 25-30 0C and change it every two days.
- The term of stratification is 60 days. Seeds get out of the water and stirred with disinfected river sand and peat. This substance with seeds are moisturized and periodically mixed until the first sprouts are bled.
As soon as the sprouts proceed, the seeds can be planted or placed in the container. In this form, the seeds of the cedar can be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2 0C until sitting in the pot. Cedar love the illuminated place, but does not tolerate direct sunlight.
Exception - Young bonsai from the seed of the Japanese cedar. It will be better to grow in the shaded room.
Features of the Agrotechnology of Japanese Pine
There are 2 types of Japanese pine: black (less demanding of lighting) and ordinary. Before planting seeds undergo a mandatory 3-month cold stratification. Seed seeds are needed in deep container to a depth of 2 centimeters. Sowing time is the end of winter.
The grooves are cut at a distance of 3 cm from each other to facilitate care for sprouted, but not yet ripened bonsai seedlings. When the first leaflets appear, it is possible to carry out a container in a bright room. With the accelerated process of photosynthesis, the sprouts will faster. You can proceed to the formation of the crown, as soon as the plant reaches 5 cm in height.
Watering, feeding, wintering
The main problem of care for bonsai is to water. Due to the small size of the pots of the root of the tree deform and the efficiency of watering is reduced. There are two main watering methods: irrigation and immersion.
- The plant is watered with water from a special kettle.
- Pot with a tree put in a bowl with water and take a few minutes.
Watering better by rainwater, if it is not - let it stand for two days with a plumbing.
Remember, bonsai dies without water. Even if its leaves are green, but there was no watering for a long time, the roots are most likely dead.
In the summer, watering must be made more often and pouring water more.
Important when growing bonsai has a feeding, especially at the time of the formation of the crown. The tree fertility every 2-3 weeks, and once a month it is necessary to make fertilizer based on algae. The most important components of fertilizer - potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Nitrogen is responsible for the growth and development of the leaves and the stem of the tree. It is the main component that contributes to cellular division and protein production.
Phosphorus stimulates cell division, responsible for binding and has a positive effect on the growth and development of the root. Protects from diseases.
Potassium helps to fight microorganisms that cause diseases, contributes to the fruiting and development of colors.
These substances should be present for bonsai. In flower shops it is difficult to find a suitable option that contains all substances in the necessary proportions. Therefore, we recommend to mix fertilizers yourself in the following proportions:
- In the spring, when the growth period is more intense, make more nitrogen. The optimal ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - 12: 6: 6, respectively;
- Summer food must be more balanced, so the components are added in the same proportions - 10:10:10
- The autumn nitrogen requires less, the optimal ratio of components 3 parts of nitrogen and 9 parts of phosphorus and potassium.
If the bonsai is grown from the flowering tree - do focus on adding potassium in a proportional ratio 12: 6: 6
Bonsai indoor plants fertilize all year round, and street - from the period of early spring and until the middle of the autumn. Young trees feast once every 2 weeks, older bonsai can be picked up every 4-6 weeks. Flowering bonsai should not be fed during flowering and immediately after it. When feeding, remember that it is better to make less fertilizers than to "reconcile" a plant.
With the occurrence of winter, inexperienced gardeners, who have miniature trees are on the street, make a huge mistake - enter them into a warm room. Such behavior makes the tree constantly grow, it takes too much energy and depletes resources. Having deprived the plant of natural "rest," you can launch every effort. A tree that grows on the street is needed to properly prepare for wintering:
- Clean the branches from pollution and pests.
- Transfer the trees on the elevated, illuminated and protected from drafts garden.
- At temperatures below -10 0With transfer the plant into the unheated room.
- Watch that the soil is not too wet.
Bonsai is amazing art and painstaking work, which is read from the selection and search for seeds and never ends. Like all living things, bonsai requires care and thanks its owner for the kindness of green leaves, bizarre forms and a unique refinement of the image.
To secure the material, look at a good video clip on the topic of growing bonsai bonsai. The author has something to learn!
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Create miniature copies of trees is really an exciting occupation. It appeared in China. With the help of a tree, you can decorate anyone any interior. If desired, you can grow bonsai from seeds yourself at home. It is only important to choose a suitable plant. Each variety has certain features. But specific care is required very rarely.
The literal translation of the name is "grown in the tray." This art originated in China, and then improved in Japan. It is possible to grow accurate copies of real trees in a reduced form. For this, regulation is performed by the root system of the flat type. Used low volume substrate. For bonsai, cultures are suitable that can be forming roots and crowns. Specifying slowly growing options. Caring for them is significantly easier. Depending on the idea and style, it is possible to obtain a tree, the height of which is from 2.5 cm to 120 cm.
In order to create interior decorations in the relevant bonsai style today take species that are not adapted to grow at home. That is why it is important to ensure constant access to the flower of fresh air. You also need to create the necessary microclimate. In order to grow bonsai tree, it is required to follow certain agrotechnical recommendations. It is also necessary to take into account the features of the variety and the needs of plants. Requirements for lighting and watering differ. Some cultures require a lot of light, others better defend from direct sun rays.
Bonsai is grown in a small capacity. If the substrate is more, the root system will grow, long shoots and large leaves will appear. If the plant does not cut, the plant is gradually losing an attractive look. In order to grow a beautiful bonsai, a constant care is required. A constant observation of the tree is required. It is important to form a crown timely and shorten the roots. If the climate is inappropriate or non-natural vegetation cycles, the plant will be destroyed. It is forbidden to break the time of hibernation of culture if it has it.
How many bonsai grows
For growing a room plant in bonsai style, the room should be well ventilated. If weather conditions allow, the flower needs to be taken to the balcony or outside. It is necessary that the level of humidity corresponds to certain needs of culture. Some plants feel good on the street and in the house. Daily air ventilation is required. Exception - winter time. It is impossible to be drafts. The level of illumination should correspond to the cultivated plant.
How to choose a pot and soil
Soil can be fertilized by reagents, take garden or inorganic land. The use of the technician depends on the culture you chose. For the bonsai need a light soil that will pass water and air. To do this, drainage is added to the soils - coke, Ceramics shards, sand of a large fraction, bark and gravel. Acadama is used to grow such plants. This is a substrate that contains different types of clay. It is necessary to prepare components. They are committed to manganese, boiling water. Also need calcination in the oven. In the conditions of the house, soil the composition complies with the following types:
- Derna, biohumus and sand in a 7: 1: 3 ratio. For blooming crops.
- Derdy earth and sand 7: 3 - hardwood trees.
- Derna and sand 3: 2 - coniferous rocks.
For a bonsai take a shallow container of small size. Requires required drainage holes and crumples or pebbles at the bottom. For good moisture and air, not only special soil is required. In the container itself should be drainage. If the plant is an adult, it takes a heaving container for it. It is especially important when it is necessary to form a cascade, inclined or incorrect form. In order to protect the flower pot from fungi and bacteria before planting, a special solution for disinfection is processed. Also, they are hung with boiling water.
Originally choose planting material and a suitable culture. The tree is obtained from ready-made seedlings, cuttings and seeds. These methods have certain pros and cons. It is necessary to perform step by step. It is impossible to skip anything, as well as tighten with the execution of certain procedures. It may seem to grow that it is difficult to grow bonsai at home. The thing is that the crown should be formed in a timely manner. Large plants that have grown in the forest are not suitable. Small seedlings are much easier to give the right shape. The ideal solution is to grow bonsai from seeds. It is possible to keep the process under control. For a successful result, you need to choose an optimal culture. At the same time, it is impossible to deviate from the desired style.
Bonsai from Chenkov
If you compare this method with growing from seeds, you can find out what to grow bonsai will be faster for the year. Another advantage is pre-known plant characteristics. They correspond to the maternal tree. Starting from the selection of suitable cuttings. It is required to cut in the spring of escape, the length of which ranges from 5 to 10 cm, thickness - from 0.2 to 0.5 cm. Warm branches are planted in summer.
In order to get bonsai with stalling, it is necessary to correctly root the shoots. The capacitance is necessarily washed and disinfected. A layer of drainage is poured onto the bottom - soil the nutritional properties. Bottom cuttings are cut at an angle of 45 degrees. Top pinch. It is important that the plant formed roots, and did not feed the green mass.
The shoots are plugged at 2 cm and pour themselves. If cultures are growing at high humidity, you need to create a greenhouse condition using a can or package.
The substrate is constantly maintained wet. Requires regular ventilation of the greenhouse. The shelter is removed then. When a young leaf appears. This suggests that the plant has rooted. Formation begin only in a few years.
How to grow from seeds
Pre-determined with culture. After that, the seeds acquire. There is an opportunity to assemble them yourself, to buy in the store or order delivery from China. Required preliminary training. It all depends on what plant will be grown. At home, grow bonsai from seeds problematic. A number of rocks requires scarification or stratification. These procedures disrupt the integrity of the shell or awaken the embryo on active growth.
To do this, they are placed in a container in which there are wet sand. Then put in the refrigerator and leave there for several months. For some plants, a perfect imitation of the conditions of nature is needed. Requires periodic thaws.
Pre-seeds are disinfected by manganese, withstand in water for 24 hours or use growth stimulator. Prepared seeds can be squeezed in autumn, summer or spring. Soil and capacity are prepared in the same way as for other ways. The substrate is not filled with edges. Leave 3 cm. When the seed material is distributed over the substrate surface, 1 cm sand is poured. Then the surface is moistened with a pulverizer, covered with a package. After the appearance of sprouts, polyethylene is puzzled in several places. The shelter is cleaned when the first real leaves are formed. Seeds for bonsai germinate for several months or days. It all depends on the tree breed, the preparation and time of landing. When stratification, the wet and warm medium will lead to the growth of the plant. For emerging shoots, you need a lot of light. Bonsai of seed grows over five to six years.
How to grow bonsai from a seedling
The planting material is digging in the forest belt or buy in the nursery. It is important that the seedlock is healthy. Its height should be 15 cm. At the same time, it is necessary to maintain partially soil from which it dug. It is especially significant for coniferous trees. The roots are cut, leaving only 7 cm. Vertical shoots are shortened, the side is removed. The plant is planted into the substrate and are waiting for it to be rooted. At the same time, they follow the state in what state is the sapling. It is necessary to water and loose to it in a timely manner.
From dwarf forms you can get an adult bonsai. This method has advantages. The cultivation time is declining. Minus - decorativeness is significantly reduced. Skeletal branches and a weighted trunk is difficult to change. It is difficult to send them to the right side. The dress is digging and examined for infecting pests or infections. You can only grow bonsai from a healthy instance. Cleaning from soil and cut up to 7 cm. The plant is planted in a pre-prepared container. The main escape pinch. A year later, it is necessary to shorten the roots and swirls, remove the extra branches. The procedure is repeated repeatedly. Young branches can be easily bent. They immediately give the right form. It is done with a thin wire.
Correct bonsue care
In the process of cultivation, you need to create a plant suitable conditions. Humidity of soil and air, optimal level of lighting, temperature depend on the chosen culture. Daily ventilation requires protection of a young plant from drafts. The growth is constantly limited, it is trimmed, they take a small container. All this leads to a decrease in the immunity of trees. That is why you need to carefully follow them. It is not necessary to hope for the stability of a certain variety to the factors of an unfavorable nature.
Features of watering
Plant requires constant care. Watering it when necessary. It is important that the soil does not stop. Newbies are confident that small leaves are able to evaporate the minimum moisture, so regular watering is not required. Often it leads to the radiance of the roots.
Used rain or thawed water. Another option is to defend water over two days. Watering plants neatly. Soil should not be blurred. It is best to choose a drip method or irrigation. At autumn, watering is reduced. The plant is prepared for the rest period.
Since the soil volume is small, the plant does not receive the necessary nutrients. During the period of active growth, every 14-21, it is necessary to perform feeding. It is worth purchasing specially prepared mixtures. An excellent option is an additive with algae. The method of minerals - potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen varies depending on the time of year. It all depends on the chosen culture. In the spring you need more nitrogenous mixtures, on the eve of winter - potash-phosphoric. In summer, the feeder is reduced by half. In winter and in the fall do not spend. A fruiting and flowering plant needs a lot of potassium. It is important that the concentrated solutions do not come into contact with the roots. It is forbidden to mix mineral and organic additives. If the recommended doses are exceeded, the plant will die.
How to replant
The procedure is carried out in order to update the soil. At the same time, it differs slightly from other plants. It is important to transplant the miniature tree very carefully. The substrate is partially retained and mixed with a new soil mixture. The capacity of the capacity can be increased only when you start grown bonsai. It is also required when the design changes. There is a need to increase the space for placing decorative elements. 48 hours before the procedure began, the plant is plentiful.
It is required to prepare the soil and container. The transplant needs to be performed quickly. Roots are sensitive to air and light. The tree is removed with the soil. It is necessary to clean the ground. The dried and sick roots are removed, healthy shortening. The plant is installed in a new pot, the root system is painted, the substrate pour. It is necessary to pour a tree. Capacity is transferred to a ventilated warm room. There should be no direct rays of the sun and drafts.
In order to get miniature from ordinary plants, you need to correctly form the root system and the crown. This is done from the moment of landing. Agrotechnology is changing. It all depends on the definite design and type of culture. Species for the bonsai are divided into several groups:
- Tropical - Visteria, Samshat, Acacia, Ficus.
- Coniferous - cypress, pine, fir, cedar, spruce.
- Wide - beech, elm, maple, birch.
Caring for trees with cheese and leaves in different ways. There are also differences within the group. It is required to take into account the period of flowering and ripening fruit. Period of relief of foliage and rest. For a bonce, you can use Chinese Elm, Ivu, Carmon, European Olorn. Sometimes there is a mixture of different species.
If plants are light-minded, additional lighting is envisaged. Subtropical plants: Mirt, Oliva, grant in summer are on the street. In winter, they are contained at a temperature of +5 to +15 degrees. Tropical plants should be indoors, the temperature in which is +25 degrees.
Blooming and fruiting
For such plants agrotechnika is usual. In order to formed buds and ovary, good lighting is required. Flowers will not appear if there will be a lot of nitrogen in the soil, and it will be dry. Decorative types of grenade, cherries and apple trees with proper care can fruits. Requires sufficient watering.
[TIP] It is necessary to avoid unwanted excess moisture. On the scorching the sun leaves will be faded. The temperature regime is required. Otherwise, marking will be lit. [/ Tip]
Blooming bonsai after flowering is strongly clipped. The formation of wires are made in summer or spring. The gentle boring of deciduous trees needs to be protected from unwanted damage. When pruning is performed, the location of the cut is lubricated with a special means. It is not necessary to apply Garden Var, as traces of fat remain from it. Top flowers are immediately removed. Otherwise, they will not be next year. Extra fruits and inflorescences are cut. The tree will not be able to provide them with the necessary substances.
Do not waste them too much. It is necessary that the lower layers of the soil dried. Wintering such a plant on the street. During this period, the temperature should be +10 degrees. Growing a beautiful coniferous bonsida is possible only with uniform lighting.
Capacity periodically rotate 90 degrees. This should be one direction. The rocks perceive the scattered light.
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Bonsai is the eastern art of growing plants in miniature. Technique has its own characteristics. It is possible to grow bonsai at home, but at the same time a number of important factors should be observed: illumination, temperature regime, soil moisture and others.
Grow bonsai at home - the task is not easy, but performing. You can grow bonsai in several ways:
- Seed seeds liked plants in the ground.
- A rapid method of reproduction of the plant is the cultivation of a plant with a stalk.
- Try to grow bonsai from a sapling purchased in a nursery or dug in the forest belt.
- Shape bonsai from an adult plant. However, this method is not acceptable for all plants.
- Buy a ready-made set of cultivation of miniature plants.
Set for pine and other plants (photo)
The shops have become popular for ready-made bonsai cultivation. Any kit includes: a pot or cube, where to plant plants, a package with soil and a small bag with seeds. Also, a detailed instruction is attached to the set.
For successful cultivation, it is necessary to observe a number of conditions:
- prevent drafts;
- water soil as drying;
- avoid direct sunlight falling;
- Do not allow temperature regimen drops.
Reproduction of seeds
What to choose?
For the cultivation of a miniature plant, the seeds of the corresponding plant will be needed. Seeds can be purchased at the store or botanical garden. Bonsai can be grown almost from any tree.
Before buying, you should decide on the trees.
- For coniferous trees, juniper, pine, larch, fir tree are well fit.
- Maple, Grab, Elm, Oak, Beech, Birch are suitable for wide cultures.
- Fruit trees can be an apple tree, cherry, grenade.
- Bonsai can be grown from tropical trees: Ginkgo Biloba, Wisteria, Azalea.
How much to wait?
Grow bonsai from the seed - it's not a quick thing. The plant can grow for years and decades, and in the end, to dry out or, on the contrary, will grow in a couple of years and will delight with its beauty. It all depends on the departure, temperature conditions, soil, as well as from the type of plant.
The fast-growing species include: Barbaris, Piracker, larch, Metaskoy and Maple.
Before planting seeds, it needs to be prepared. To do this, use the soaking method, which depends on the type of plant:
- For fakes, citrus and some deciduous plants, it suffices to soak seeds in warm water for 24 hours.
- For roller-growing bonsai (they include cedar, maple, sakura) seeds first endure on the cold, and before sowing it is placed in warm water.
- For trees growing in the continental climate, seeds are first soaked in warm water, and then reduce the temperature and bring to the cold.
For prophylactic disinfection, you can use a weak solution of manganese.
Capacity and primer
It is better to start the landing in a spring or summer season. It will take a peat pot filled with peat and sand. You can choose another suitable container. For the landing, the soil is perfect for cacti, if you mix it with sand.
Landing do it yourself step by step
- First of all, in the pot, you need to pour a sandy peat mixture into which the seed is planned. Do not fill in the mixture all the space pot. It is better to pour the mixture so that several centimeters remain to the edge of the container.
- From above on a mixture with a uniform layer, you need to pour out the turf of the earth and pick up a wooden circle on top.
- To the prepared hole to put seeds and fall asleep their sand.
- After that, you need to press the soil with a wooden circle to seal. The circle can be removed, pour the soil and cover with a plastic film.
- After the work done, the pot, covered with film, you need to remove into a dark cool place. You should periodically remove the film so that the Earth breathe.
On the video you can see how to plant pine seeds:
Seeds are safely planted, and it remains to wait for the first shoots. In cases where the first green sprouts made their way from under the ground, the plant should provide air. To ensure air, it is necessary to remove the film from the pot and move the plant into the illuminated place. Earth with seedy can be fertilized.
Locate the pot in such a way that the straight sunlights do not fall on the plant.
An important condition for good growth is the competent watering of mini-plants. Usually in the summer bonsai watered 1-2 times a week, in the fall and spring is enough one watering a week. In winter, plants watered 1-2 times a month. The exclusion is coniferous rocks, since their growth continues yearly, they must be watered in a winter period at least 1 time per week.
Apple tree from seeds
Apple-bonsai can be raised at home. There are no special seeds of a miniature apple tree, so any seeds are suitable for planting, regardless of its variety.
- After the apple tree gives the first shoots, you should carefully follow the departure of the tree. During the formation of infloresions, it is necessary to water the plant more often. In winter, it is often not necessary to water the apple tree.
- Periodically, you need to spray the tree. Water cans dust and dirt from leaves and will not let them dry.
- From time to time the plant should be fertilized. To do this, it is better to use powdered organic fertilizers.
- When the tree reaches a height of 30-40 centimeters, the top of the apple tree should neatly trim. The twigs of the miniature trees also need to be cut.
Reproduction of cuttings
How to choose?
Bonsai can be raised with cuttings. The plant planted in this way will grow faster than the village from the seed. Collect cuttings better in spring season. For landing, green shoots in five or ten centimeters are suitable.
For the cultivation of the bonsai-tree, the model of drawing is necessary to prepare a suitable container in which the stalk will be planted. The pot must be wide and low.
- The first layer must be poured into the tank drainage layer, for example, small gravel.
- Then it should be evenly pouring a layer of soil, but not to the top of the top pot.
- Prepared cuttings must be plugged into the ground to a depth of several centimeters.
- After landing, the cuttings should be thoroughly pouring.
Bonsai at home successfully can be grown from seeds or cuttings. For successful cultivation, it is necessary to observe a number of conditions, stick to the desired temperature regime and other essential conditions.
Read more about Bonsai:
Bonsai - Japanese art of cultivation of trees in a pot who is interested in many flower water. At least care for dwarf plants gives a lot of trouble, the fans of this direction are becoming more and more. And many are interested in: whether it is possible to get such a tree on their own at home.
Is it possible to grow bonsai from seeds at home?
Bonsai can be obtained in several ways. The easiest way to take a tree from nature. So, high in the mountains, where the forest ends, there are old trees, the height of which is not more than 50 cm. Since they are small for them, they grow up for a year only a few centimeters. Due to unfavorable natural conditions, they are very twisted. However, it is not easy to dig such a plant. Since the root can reach 80 cm. In addition, the resolution of the owner of the site will be required.
Often resort to stalling. However, not all plants are well rooted. Then a simpler way to get bonsai - grow it from seeds.
However, he has a number of shortcomings:
- There is no guarantee that the seeds will germinate;
- The growing process lasts long;
- Not all shoots survive.
What does bonsai tree look like?
The word "bonsai" translated from Japanese means "grown on a tray." This is a miniature copy of the tree growing in the wild. For the formation of which, resort to a special crown of the crown and roots. Plant settled in special containers.
This type of art is in kinship Iqueban and Arboskulface. The last term implies the formation of live plants of various objects - furniture, construction, installations.
The present plant Bonsai looks as if it was not formed not in greenhouse conditions, but was subjected to frost, wind, rain, snow and other adverse factors. And the closer the similarity with full-sized fellows growing in the wild, the more skillful is the master. At the same time, people who first seen such a culture may not even believe that it is real, and not cast from plastic.
As already mentioned, the main feature of Bonsai plants is a small height. So, the most rolling copies reach 1.5 m.
Depending on this parameter, the following classification is adopted:
- Cacy Tsuba, Sieve, Gafa - 2.5-20 cm;
- Carmonic, mock - 15-25 cm;
- katate-moth - not higher than 40 cm;
- katatem moth, 40-120 cm;
- Bondsu - 1 m and above.
Reference. People who are passionate about the cultivation of dwarf trees from European breeds believe that it is not necessary to blindly follow the tradition in the formation of the barrel and crown. It is better to look at the local inhabitants of the forest, and according to their image and similarity to form a crown.
Views with photos
Asian Bonsai Schools, though there are questions of certain rules, but their borders are delineated not clearly. This allows masters to take their talents as much as possible. However, this one cannot say about the Japanese direction, where the standards are clearly regulated. This applies to both the size of the trees and the size of the container, the table and the exhibiting techniques.
The desire to display the nature of the thumbnail created many styles. Here are the main:
- juice is dual trunks, parts of which can be different in size;
- Tekskan - a formal straight style, in which the trunk thickened near the root and has a straight form;
- Xiak - growing plants under the tilt;
- Natsunari - part of the trunk of the ground, and the branches grow as separate trees;
- Moyogi is an informal straight style, branches or trunk are somewhat twisted, but the top is always straight. Its axis coincides with the lower part of the trunk and it is perpendicular to the soil;
- Kengai (Cascade) - repeats the shape of trees growing on mountain slopes. In full cascade, the top is outside the pot. It falls below the soil level, like Liana;
- Khan-Kengai - a semi-skill style, the top is at the ground level;
- literal, or bundzing - is a straight trunk with a small amount of branches;
- Cephids - a tree grows on a stone, braided root (figs are often so grown). Similar style of Ishizuk, when trees are located in "Gorges";
- Khokidati (broom) - relevant for an empty crown, which gives the form of bullets;
- Ikadabuki is a multi-style style, in which all shoots have one root. The largest barrel forms the main, the highest crown.
What seeds can be used for growing?
Often newbies, trying to form bonsai, immediately aims at exotic species of plants - for example, ficuses. However, art connoisseurs say that a beautiful dwarf tree can be obtained even from the usual European garden and forest trees. With proper care, they affect the imagination no less. In addition, it is easier and cheaper to get their seeds. Sometimes it is enough to walk through the park or the forest-fitting forest.
At the same time, not every plant looks beautifully in a reduced copy. For example, chestnut has large leaves and flowers, which looks bad in the reduced version. But an inconspicuous hawthorn for this purpose is suitable for this purpose.
Therefore, when choosing rocks, such factors should be considered:
- the possibility of branching from old wood;
- leaves size;
- crown thick;
- the possibility of growing in a small dish;
- The aesthetics of the roar shape of the trunk.
Coniferous trees are convenient because their trunks can be formed, without fearing to damage. Unpretentious pine is the perfect version of the "pen sample" for beginners.
Fumby pets are like rocks:
- Japanese black - traditional variety for the country of the rising sun, where it is used most often. This pine grows slowly, unpretentious and has an expressive drawing of the bark;
- Japanese white - it looks unusual due to whitish needles, it has a thick, spreading crown;
- Mountain - another simple grade variety. Well tolerates temperature differences without changing the eye of the needles. Noteworthy and what gives gentle-purple flowers;
- Ordinary is the most affordable and easy for bonsai option.
The plant spread quite widely. So, he will find a place in a blue. Of the maple, the amazing beauty of the composition is obtained.
Most of all such types are suitable for this:
Very beautiful dwarf copies of the dress-shaped maple. The grade pleases the eye with its elegant, carved leaves of bright colors.
A tree with fragrant flowers also manages to plant. As a pot culture, an American leapip is grown. She has an attractive ball shape of the crown, although it is quite difficult to carry it out. Gardeners also loved linden heart-shaped. This is the smallest grade used for the bonce. No less interesting Lipa is widely important. On it in the season blooms with fragrant, expressive aroma.
It looks great in such compositions Chinese rose. This is an evergreen shrub from the Malvic family. Every year, large flowers are formed on a small trunk - red, yellow, orange. They live for no more than two days. Despite fantastic flowering, the Chinese rose is grown not often due to large-scale leaves.
European larch in nature towards the ground 40 m. But it can also be grown as an exhibit of the miniature collection. The plant attracts art admirers with a beautiful, loose crown, which is widely spread through horizontally growing branches. Sheet plates replace the needles that fall yellow and fall. In the pot, the plant reaches the size of 1.5-2 m.
From this garden culture, you can also try to create bonsai. For this take low grade. However, it must be borne in mind that Ryabina has a rather large sheet. Therefore, many gardeners are in no hurry to spend strength on her. Miniature is not so small. But if you still want to experiment, the reproduction of seeds is one of the most successful methods. Since the cuttings are rooted.
To get bonsai, choose varieties with a compact crown. Branches and trunk must be flexible. Well, if the juniper gives a lot of foliage - it has a positive effect on decorativeness. The variety Cossack is better reincarnated. It is good even for newbies.
You can also pay attention to the following varieties of shrubs:
What do you need to put bonsai?
Seeds of trees are assembled at different times because of the ripening season:
- Spruce spruce, Larch Siberian - October-January;
- Lipa Meltsolite - September-November;
- Rowan - October-November;
- Maple OstroVytite - September-October.
The assembled material retains the germination throughout the year. Therefore, you should not worry that the landing is postponed. For storage, the material wrapped in paper and put in a dry place.
Seeds of different crops are distinguished by the form, the magnitude of the fetus and the hardness of the seed box. For each tree there is its own seed method, for which it is also worth paying attention.
So, the fruits of pine, oak, beech and fir can be planted immediately. But juniper and maple requires stratification. To do this, they are put in wet sand and placed in a cool place. Another way to temper is to wrap in paper, put in the container and bury in the snow until spring.
Depending on how much germination lasts, the landing time is calculated. Works plan to end spring - the beginning of summer.
Do you need to germinate before landing?
Before planting seeds, it is advisable to germinate. For this, they are placed in wet wool or moss sphagnum, vermiculite. After some time, a sprout will appear. Then it's time for sowing.
If the shell is solid, it will be pre-signed to simplify the swelling of the seed and increase the percentage of germination. You can do this in several ways:
- wipe the seeds with sandpaper or sand, other abrasives;
- a sharp knife, trying not to damage the embryo;
- punch with a needle;
- Go with sulfuric acid. The method is dangerous and more suitable for cultivation of cultures on an industrial scale.
How to prepare?
Before landing, seeds are treated by manganese. This drug performs two tasks at once. On the one hand, he prevents the damage to fungi and bacteria living on the shell. On the other hand, it stimulates the rapid development of the seedlings. Prepared raw materials are kept in a solution of 2 hours. Stratified seeds - up to 20 minutes.
Also, for this purpose, you can use:
- Copper vigorous (0.1 g per 1 liter of water);
- hydrogen peroxide (3%), preheat to 38 ° C;
- Boric acid (0.2 g per 1 liter of water).
We must take care of the pots. For a bonce, several models have been created, taking into account the peculiarities of cultivation:
- Height - corresponds to the width of the trunk;
- Length of oval, round pots - 2/3 of the height of the plant;
- Round diameter, square side - 1/3 height.
Attention! Some species of plants need deer dishes. In particular, this concerns fruit and blooming plants, in which the root system develops quite quickly.
High technologies got to ancient art. So, levitating containers are developed. They hang in the air over a special magnetic platform and constantly turn around their axis. Thereby creating conditions for uniform crown lighting. Works device from the network.
How to plant step bypass?
For landing as a basis, you can use universal soil from a specialized store. Pre-substrate steamed hot water for disinfection. If sand is used, then it is calcined in the oven. Also, it should be prepared a small, squat container with a height of 5-7 cm with drainage holes.
Plant plant in accordance with such a scheme:
- The fitting capacity is washed with boiling water and a solution of manganese.
- Drainage is put on the bottom, on top - slightly moistened substrate.
- The soil is aligned using a plank.
- The seeds are folded on the surface of the substrate - the less often the better. If they are small (for example, rowan, pink), then first mixed with sand.
- From above poured a layer of soil of the desired thickness. If for germination of shoots (for example, azalea), light requires, the seeds are left open.
- Breakdown a pale pink solution of manganese and irrigate him a garden.
- Cover with a tank with film or glass.
- They put the dishes for germination into a warm place with a temperature of 22-25 ° C, but are diagnosed from direct sunlight.
- Daily mini greenhouse open to ventilate, glass cleaned from condensate. Without this, mold arises on the surface of the soil.
- When 3-4 real leaves appear, each seedman is deserted into a separate pot with a diameter of 5-7 cm. In this case, they cut the root slightly.
If the plant is developing rapidly, it is transferred to large containers. For slowly growing crops, the transplant is only on the next season. The most suitable time for this is the beginning of the Software.
For transplanting, a standard mixture is used - clay with humus, humus and coarse sand. The proportions are selected for each plant their own. Other components can also be added if the tree is necessary.
How to grow bonsai?
The cultivation of mini-trees is a whole range of events. The corresponding care implies, first of all, proper and sufficient lighting, watering and compliance with the temperature regime. And in order for the tree to look well maintained, you need to know the features of his trimming. Only then a pot culture gives its owner aesthetic pleasure from contemplation.
It must be remembered that bonsai is mainly not indoor crops. Therefore, they need to provide conditions as much as possible with natural. Without problems in the apartment you can keep only cultures growing in a tropical and subtropical climate. But they will have to provide high humidity and good illumination.
At the same time, there are no completely external trees. Cold resistant plants are able to adapt to the room, but the cultivation becomes more complicated. So, for the winter they need to be exhibited on a cold, unheated balcony.
If in nature the plant is laid by the rest period, then such a state cannot be broken. This is especially true of deciduous crops - for example, linden. Some trees - pine, maple and others can grow outside, and inside the building. There are also representatives of flora, which first grow in the house, and then move them to open air.
As a rule, dwarf trees for the winter exhibit into the courtyard. However, some of them need special protection from the cold. So that the roots do not penetrate, the flame is placed in an additional container with insulation. And also cover the ground to the height until the first branch of mulch, agrofiber.
When growing, the bonsai is extremely important. In nature, trees continuously receive water from the soil. Therefore, the soil in the container should always be wet enough. This is achieved at the expense of a daily twofold irrigation in small portions.
In winter, with room content in the cold room, watering produce once a day. If this frequency is not possible, then you must at least not allow the upper layer of soil to dry. It should be remembered that deciduous rocks need more moisture than coniferous. In addition, it should be regularly sprayed with water to the crown.
Each plant has their pests and diseases. Therefore, preventive treatment with insecticides and antibacterial agents does not interfere.
The force of the plant will give regular feeding three major elements:
- nitrogen - helps to form a green mass;
- phosphorus - need for the health of the root system;
- Kalaise - stimulates flowering and fruiting.
In the spring, the feeder is carried out with a drug mixed in proportions 12: 6: 6. It stimulates growth. In the summer, the ratio is changing at 10:10:10, in the fall - 3:10:10. For better flowering, a mixture is used 6: 6: 12. Fertilizers with a frequency once every 20-30 days. If the plant is grown on the street, the winter is stopped in winter.
Attention! The first time the tree fertilize a month after disembarking in a full-size pot.
Formation of a tree
Beginners think that it is enough just to plant a tree and carefully care for him. This opinion is mistaken. Plant need to form.
The process consists of several stages:
- Approximately 2 years later, when the seedling will win, cut off the top of the stem and side branches. Leave only a small stalk. Really cut no more than 40% of the crown. Thanks to this, the trunk becomes thicker, but does not grow in height. For several years, the procedure is repeated. Each year is trimmed by 30% roots so that their form becomes branched.
- When the trunk is gaining the desired thickness, leave several kidneys. They are formed by Krone Tree. All unnecessary branches are regularly cut. After 7-10 years, it is embarked in the formation of the crown itself. This is done with the help of aluminum wire, which is wound on the branches, forcing them to grow in the right direction.
- Subsequent few years, shoots thicken. They must be quenched to improve branching. If you need to adjust the direction of growth, the wire is carefully twisted. Flowers recommended to impose Corset from October to March. Since at this time plants are at rest. In addition, during this period, the configuration of branches and crown is best visible on deciduous cultures. When the tree is fully formed, the guides are removed.
Attention! When trimming roots and shoots, there should be no colors on the plant. All manipulations are carried out with a sharp tool so that the cuts are smooth. Pre-blade is treated with a strong heatman, chlorhexidine, alcohol, or simply calcined over fire.
Trees are slower, if there are shallow cuts from time to time. In order for the wounds to be dragged, the plant starts juice. This event has another goal: interesting influx appear on shoots.
How long will it grow?
Growing a bonsai is a complex and troublesome process. For example, from landing in the land of seed before decorating escape takes place for at least 2 years. Finally, to form branches on some plants is possible only after 7-10 years.
The tree is grown even for centuries. So, in the Imperial Garden of Japan there are long-livers, which 300 or more years. Therefore, a tree or even a whole garden on the windowsill can be left as a memory of herself to grandchildren.
It is not possible to grow bonsai. However, for those who do it turns out, the plant's care becomes a lifestyle. All because difficult and painstaking work they perceive as a kind of ritual and meditation. If you look at the task with this position, then grow a dwarf larch, maple or a lip of a small seed will definitely work.
How to grow bonsai from seeds at home?
Today, there is a large selection of crops in front of the flowerfish, which can be grown at home. The art of growing a copy of the tree in the Bonsai miniature is highlighted. It should be done under the power to any flower in the use of seeds of selected crops and, of course, with proper plant care.
Growing and Styles
It comes to this art from China, for the first time, such work took up on the orders of the emperor who wished to recreate the miniatures of their empire not only in the form of buildings, but also trees. According to the religious beliefs of Buddhists, a master capable of creating small copies of plant crops, equated to the Divine. Today applies a number of technician and styles, focusing on which, the masters work on the creation of bonsai. 2 Growing techniques are considered the main: traditional and special.
She, in turn, allows gardeners Plant cultures in the following styles:
- direct barrel;
- informal straight;
- style assuming two trunks;
- Cascade and half-cup;
- bonsai with protruding rhizome;
- inclined and literary;
- group composition;
- Style broom.
To germinate cultures, adhering to the principles of special techniques, prefer true connoisseurs and professionals specializing in the creation of miniature copies of plants. Styles used in this direction may be as follows:
- "General roots";
- forest bonsai;
- Growing on a rock and in the wind.
Seeds of what trees will fit?
Japanese compositions with dwarf crops will be able to create with almost any tree plant, which will have to taste the customer or the gardener itself. Since the bonsai is grown around the world for quite a long time, there is a whole list of the most sought-after cultures, the cultivation of which in the miniature allows you to create beautiful compositions.
Among the exotic tree plants is to allocate acacia, wisteria, various types of ficuses, as well as Mirita and Samshaty.
Russian flowerflowers are very often used apple tree, birch, maple, Japanese cedar. To germinate bonsai from seeds at home will be able to use in the composition planting material from coniferous rocks, such as spruce, pines, including Pinus Parviflora, cypress. Such cultures in dwarfship will be able to organically fit into any interior. For some crops there are recommendations regarding their size:
- Acacia, wisteria, pine - 100-130 centimeters;
- Lipa, ash, beech and oak - 60-100 centimeters;
- Maple, Birch, Oshness - 20-30 centimeters;
- Juniper, spruce, IRGA - 10-20 centimeters.
The planting material is recommended to acquire only in specialized stores or nurseries so that the upcoming works brought the desired result. However, the purchase of seed is not the only option to create bonsai with their own hands. Very often, the flower gather seeds in the parks or botanical gardens, where there are a lot of beautiful and healthy plant instances.
Processing and germing
Before rooting the seeds of the tree, a number of preparatory activities should be conducted with a manually acquired by hand. It is possible to germinate culture only after mandatory processing. The optimal time for rooting seed will become summer, it means that preparation for landing should be done in advance in the spring or in the autumn. In order to plant healthy plants, experienced flower products subjected to stratification seeds. This method allows you to recreate for seeds winter conditions that young cultures have been working. There are several options for stratification of planting material.
This processing will need landing material, which is still necessary to reset before rooting. This concerns the Tui, spruce and pine. The essence of the method is to soak instances in water temperature, followed by withstanding in the refrigerator. Such manipulations artificially create a sharp temperature difference, which often occurs in natural conditions.
More sparing treatment, the purpose of which is considered to be awakening plants. So that the seeds faster faster, they are placed for some time in a container with warm water or in a wet environment.
Combined processing method
The work method required for the planting material of crops, which are highlighted by slow growth rates. This applies to Sakura, maple and cedar. In this case, the flower will need to place the seeds in heat alternately, and then in the cold. In the latter case, they must be kept in the warm liquid.
This option is most often used to grow miniature trees in Bonsai technique.
In addition to stratification, seeds also undergo a mandatory disinfection procedure to reduce the risk of cultures with fungal ailments. Most often for work in this case, a solution of manganese is used. Disinfection can last from 5 to 15 days.
After the material has passed processing and disinfection, it is placed in a wet microclimate, in order to soften the upper sheath of the grains. For these purposes, a wet sand is used in which the grains deepen. The container with them should be covered with polyethylene, leaving seeds in this state in a warm place protected from light for 2-3 months. Before rooting the grains, they need to get from sand, withstanding 2-3 days in water temperature.
Selection of soil and pot
To raise a beautiful bonsai yourself, you should carefully select not only the material for planting, but also choose the pot. Seeds first stand to germinate in small peat cups, several cultures for the composition can be rooted in a flower vase with drainage. Today, bonsai is grown in pots, which can be different not only in shape, but also in depth.
Miniature cultures are equally beautiful look in oval, rectangular or round containers. Capacities can be deep or flat. In the issue of selection, the pot needs to be guided not only by personal taste preferences, but also the rules for placing plants. Trees that will grow with a bias need a stable capacity, as it will avoid falling pot. The optimal option will be deep containers made of heavy raw materials.
Color design Pot for bonsai can be any, the external attractiveness of the dwarf plant is able to emphasize the bright colors and calm monophonic products.
The design of the container will correctly select depending on the style of the living composition in it. Trees with a thick crown will look beautiful in flat and wide containers. Cascade-type cultures are usually grown in narrow and high vases. Regardless of coloring and shape, before rooting plants in the container, it should be displaced, by treating boiling water, which will kill bacteria and fungi, if any on the material.
For miniature cultures, it is also necessary to pick up the ground. As a rule, flowerflowers rooted sprouted seeds into a special soil intended for bonsai. It is not so often implemented in horticultural stores and is called "Acadama". The soil is enriched with a large amount of nutrients, so it is very heavy. In addition, the soil is highlighted in high levels of humidity, as well as excellent aeration. In pure form, the soil is used very rarely.
Often the land for miniature trees is prepared independently, mixing nutritious substrate with grainy clay, sand and humus. The proportions are selected depending on the type of grown plant. Based on the varieties of cultures, the soil may be like this:
- For leaf fall trees: 7 parts of the turf, 3 pieces of sand;
- coniferous rocks: 4 pieces of sand and 6 pieces of turf soil;
- Flowering miniatures: 7 pieces of turf, 3 pieces of sand and 1 part of humus.
In addition to self-assessing the boarding material for bonsai, the soil for it can also be made with your own hands. The blind land is easy to find in the meadow, taking the land for its needs from the middle layer, which will be more suitable for culture. Before use, it must be cleaned from the remnants of other plants and weed herb, as well as sift through the sieve. As for the rest of the components for the preparation of the substrate, the sand will be needed coarse-grain, since it will provide the land correct air circulation, and will also allow the moisture for a long time. Gumus is sold in any flower shop. Before using the resulting soil, it is required to be disinfected by calcining. For these purposes, you can use the kitchen oven.
Spring from the bonsai seed can several years, however, the key to getting a beautiful and healthy culture will be the right landing. Work on the rooting of culture in the pot is best to spend in the summer months, as a rule, planting material, rooted before in the sand, will already be fully prepared for transplant. As practice shows, in summer, the seeds will begin to form roots much faster, so culture will develop faster.
The pot is filled with prepared soil, fall asleep the container to the very top should not. It is necessary to leave about 3 centimeters, at this level the processed seeds are laid out, which need to make a piece of wood well. Then the remaining land is poured, which is recommended good to ravibly. Some flowerflowers are additionally covered with a pot of polyethylene by making several holes in it for air inflows.
When shoots appear, the passing material is removed, and the pot is set to a bright and warm place indoors.
Works concerning the care of miniature cultures are reduced to regular soil moistening and ventilating, the land in the pot always should be wet. To avoid rotting the roots, which is a fairly common problem due to the small size of the pot, the flowers are carried out by watering in several ways. In the first case, this may be irrigating the culture with water. For these purposes, it is recommended to use rainwater, which before irrigation you need to stand for 2-3 days. Moisturize the village from a special kettle. The second option is the immersion of the pot into the large-size container filled with water. The culture should be in it should be about 2-3 minutes.
The pot before the appearance of shoots should stand in a shaded place, at the air temperature of order +16 C. With the appearance of sprouts, plant growth will need solar light, then it is recommended to maintain a room temperature for bonsai. When the sponsors are 2-3 months, the flower will need to pix trees. This is necessary to stimulate cultures to further growth and development.
Bonsai care also implies an additional feeding of plants, especially in the summer. For these purposes, it is recommended to use comprehensive shopping teams, adding them to a pot in small portions.
During the formation of the crown, it is necessary to fertilize the bonsai 2 times a month, one month should also make fake based on algae.
For the health and growth of miniature cultures, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen will be very important. The latter is necessary for productive growth in green mass. Phosphorus is responsible for the growth and division of plant cells, including the root, also has a beneficial effect on immunity cultures. Potassium will help plants to deal with bacteria and microorganisms, in addition, the trace element will contribute to the flowering of plants. Placing a pot with a culture indoors, it is worth avoiding direct sunlight on young trees. Ultraviolet can provoke a burn and lead to the death of the plant.
The main task of the flower plant in the process of growing miniature trees is the process of repaid. The essence of this responsible work is to shorten the root rod for two-thirds. To activate the growth of rhizomes, some cultures are carried out hormonal injection. As a rule, the plant will be prepared for such manipulations at the age of 3 months. Forming culture begin to engage in achieving a village of several years.
How to grow bonsai from seeds, see the next video.
Bonsai seeds - Growing at home
The art of Bonsai came from Japan and China. Initially, the miniature trees were grown by Buddhist monks, but over time, an unusual passion passed into the discharge of secular. Now fans of tiny fans, pines and linds are found around the world, while planting trees is possible in a seed way.
Popular types of trees for growing
In the literal translation, the art of Bonsai denotes "cultivation in a tray." It allows you to obtain reduced copies of conventional trees, coniferous and deciduous due to the cutting of roots, trimming of shoots, using the substrate poor mineral substances. To create a unique garden of dwarf crops height from 2 to 110 cm, trees with long growth are used.
Bonsai tree will become a unique decoration of any room
There are several groups of plants that can be grown in miniature:
- The lowest plants from 9 to 20 cm high. This is Juniper, Spruce, Irga.
- 20-30 cm high. Barbaris, Pine, Maple are suitable.
- Reaching 30-70 cm. This is a pine, birch, hazel.
- Trees up to 60-100 cm. Choose oak, larch, black pine.
- The highest representatives, more than 100 cm. In this way, acacia, chestnuts, planenes are grown in this way.
Note! You can create houses original green corners, where bonsai trees will harmoniously combine with lush flowering roses or violets.
Among the best plants for bonsai of seeds include a pepper tree or zankoxylum, unpretentious evergreen culture with dark bark and large pasty leaves, publishing a pleasant fragrance. Well suitable for creating living works of art.
The tiny variation of the olive tree looks originally, it is from it that it is recommended to start working for beginners. The tree has an unusual gray bark, the flowering period falls at the end of the summer - the beginning of autumn.
You can grow bonsai from almost any tree
Rules for processing and germination
Bonsai seeds can be processed for subsequent germination by several options. Preparation of seeds to germination is called stratification.
The method is selected in the case when the bonsai seeds need to be ripening. Relevant for Tui, pine, blue firings. Step-by-step sequence of actions such:
- Soaking seeds in warm water for 24 hours.
- Moving the seed in the refrigerator. The exposure time of cold depends the variety. For southern woody breeds lasting about 60 days, for the Northern - until six months.
Thus, it is possible to create a temperature difference similar to what is happening in a natural medium.
Instead of the refrigerator, the sowing material for bonsai into cold soil, for example, perlite or wet sand is allowed. After that, the containers are transferred to the cool, but well ventilated room, such as a balcony.
Note! The use of organic soils can cause contamination of seed by bacteria, the appearance of mold, so they are better to refuse them.
Verification of seeds is carried out twice a month, rotten and spoiled throw away, the proceeding should be put immediately.
Proper stratification is the key to the fact that it will be possible to grow a beautiful miniature tree
The main purpose of the procedure is the awakening of seeds for bonsai. Required mode - Humidity 70%, Temperature - +20 ℃. It is carried out in several ways:
- Seeds are placed between layers of wet fabric and placed in a bright place where sprouts will appear.
- Instead of napkins, it is permissible to use a wet sponge or coconut substrate.
To create a greenhouse effect, the design is covered with a film.
Combined processing method
Thus, he is carried out by presidential preparation of cedar and maple seeds, sakura and other crops with a long-lasting growth cycle. Such stratification implies an alternation of impacts with cold and warmth. At the first stage, the bonsai seeds are placed in cold water or endure in a cool room. And immediately before planting - in warm liquid. This allows you to quickly stretch seeds.
Growing bonsai from seeds - art, but if desired, everyone can master them
Soil and Capacity for Growing Bonsai
Considering how to grow bonsai from seeds at home, it is impossible to bypass the rules for choosing the soil. The most preferred option is the coarse sand, pre-calcined in the oven. Do it like this:
- The sand is washed in several waters.
- Pull with a thin layer on the baking sheet.
- Place in the oven for 30 minutes at a temperature of 180.
To plant bonsai plants fit clay granules, well-holding moisture. Used for landing and humus, especially good heather of increased acidity.
For coniferous breeds, a slightly crushed needle of the selected plant is added to the soil. The substrate itself is a mixture in equal amounts of leaf land, sand and humus. Deciduous trees grow best on burned clay mixed with lava and pembia. Fruit crops feel comfortable in composition of leafy land and compost taken in the ratio of 1: 1.
Note! To reduce moisture and the prevention of wetting, make a drainage layer.
Before planting the bonsai seeds, you need to choose a pot. Flat wide models are suitable for coniferous rocks, and the trees with a crown curve are oval or round. If the plant has a wide powerful trunk, then a rectangular deep container is acquired. Representatives of the flora with an open root system will fit narrow but deep containers.
Material for pot can be any: ceramics, clay, glass, even a tree. But from cheap plastic it is better to refuse - it does not differ in a long time, and the bonsai tree negatively perceive the transplant.
Color and decoration depends on the will of the owner, but should not get a richly decorated vessel - it will distract attention from the living composition. The right choice for bonsai is a light container. Sit cultures and dark brown, black, even pink pots.
Bonsai Tree Pot may have an unusual form
Features Seeding seeds and plant care
The landing is made in spring or summer, it is also allowed on the first autumn month. The substrate is poured into the selected container so that it remains about 2.5 cm to the edge. Then the separated seeds in a row are split into the prepared soil. They are sprinkled with a thin layer of sand, then pressed with a wooden circle and carefully irrigate.
Next, the container is covered with film or package and transferred to a dark place (the temperature should not be above +14).
Note! Every day the film needs to be removed for several minutes to ventilate. Soil should always be moisturized, but not wetlands.
After the appearance of the sprouts, the film is cleaned, and the pots mix on the illuminated place, under the lamp or the windowsill. Formation of seedlings - removal of 2/3 of the main root - is carried out in 2-3 months. When the height of the bonsai trunk reached 10 cm, the tree is seated in separate containers and begin to form a crown.
Proper landing is a guarantee that the tree will grow strong, but tiny
Features of agrotechnics of Japanese and red maple
Bonsai seed collection begins in autumn, the duration of stratification is 120 days. Sefaceans follows in April or early May.
Note! To speed up the crossing of seeds, they are soaked for 48 hours in hydrogen peroxide. It protects them from mold and diseases.
Maple is good because it can have leaves of various color, not only the usual green, red or yellow, but also non-standard blue, blue, purple tones.
The main rules for growing maple in Bonsai:
- The place is chosen by the bright, but protected from direct sunlight.
- The plant may die if the thermometer is dropped below the mark - +5.
- Watering should be moderate, but regular, it is impossible to dry the soil. In the summer heat, the earth is better twice a day - in the morning and in the evening.
- New twigs are cut throughout the year, but the old shoots are permissible to form only in autumn or in spring.
Note! To feed the maple in the winter it is impossible.
Features of Agrotechnology Bonsai from Lemon
Seeds do not need stratification, but must be taken from ripe citrus. To enhance the chances of germination, several seeds are planted at the same time. For lemon, a drainage layer is required at least 1.5-2 cm. The seed bookmark is made to a depth of 1.5 cm. After sowing, the pot is covered with a polyethylene bag and is removed into the room with a temperature of +18.
After the appearance of shoots, the film is cleaned, and the plant is placed in a bright place. Subsequent care includes watering, feeding. Use complexes for indoor plants in half dosage.
Lemon Bonsai - Amazing Plant, Present Home Decoration
Features of agrotechnology cedar
Japanese cedar - evergreen classic of eastern art. The tiny tree looks very interesting and will be a decent decoration of a home garden, decorated in Chinese style.
Cedar seeds germinate without problems, but very negatively react to an excessive amount of water. To grow a cedar, such actions should be performed:
- Soak seeds in warm water per day.
- Fully dry seeds.
- To put them in the sun for 15 minutes.
- Put in a plastic zip-bag, tightly close and remove into the fridge for a month.
- After the appearance of sprouts, make a falling into the ground.
- Carefully pour.
- It should not close the film, but it is important to maintain the constant humidity of the substrate.
Many are interested in how much bonsai grows. It all depends on the breed and variety of wood. For example, the Lebanese cedar for 10 years will grow only 10 cm.
Bonsai Cedar looks very smart and unusual
Features of the Agrotechnology of Japanese Pine
White Japanese pine is very good, grown according to Bonsai technology. Seeding seeds begin at the beginning of spring, if they are fresh, the sprouts will appear very quickly. Cold stratification method is used. For pine, a bright place is needed, otherwise the needles will be dull and weak.
Note! Excessive humidity of the soil - the reason for the root rot. Watering should be careful.
Watering, feeding, wintering
The tiny trees are grown in small pots, so watering should be carried out very carefully. Use two methods:
- Irrigation. Moisturizing the soil from a small watering can with a thin spout.
- Immersion. It is important that in the bottom of the pots were drainage holes. The container with the plant is immersed in a pelvis filled with water, for 5-10 minutes.
Note! For irrigation, rainwater or plumbing, saturated at least 48 hours.
For feeding, mineral complexes enriched with nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus are used. You can take fertilizers for room plants, but at a concentration of 50%, it will be preventing excessive growth of shoots and foliage. Rules of feeding:
- For the summer period, potassium content is reduced.
- In the spring and autumn, the compositions rich in nitrogen and phosphorus are chosen.
Preparation for winter involves the purification of the plant from the affected and dried shoots, the destruction of pests. Pots moves into a bright place protected from drafts and purge.
Garden Bonsai - a dream that can become a jaw. A variety of coniferous, deciduous and even fruit trees in miniature can be grown from seeds, the main thing is to comply with the recommendations.