Dyspepsia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnostics, Treatment and Prevention



Experience 30 years old

Psychotherapist, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Member of the Russian Professional Psychotherapeutic League

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Therapists most often appeal to complaints that are characteristic of the disorders of the digestive system. And what is the symptoms of dyspepsia in an adult, everyone should know. The diagnosis requires a serious differential approach, since this group includes all non-specific signs of the symptom complex of the gastrointestinal tract. The treatment of dyspepsia directly depends on the causes of the disease, and this is in most cases the deficiency of digestive enzymes or incorrect power.

Symptoms and signs of dyspepsia

Dispassia syndrome is disorders of digestion and symptoms that are peculiar to various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and their border phases.

When digestion is disturbed, symptoms appear, which are combined by a common name - the dyspeption of the stomach, refers here:

  • problems with swallowing;
  • nausea and vomit attacks;
  • belching;
  • Pain in the area of ​​the stomach;
  • heartburn;
  • rumbling in the stomach;
  • bloating;
  • constipation, diarrhea.

Dispersion of the stomach and intestines causes pain in the epigastric area. They can be both fairly intense and in the form of light discomfort. There is a sense of rapid saturation and overcrowding, and as a result of this, also nausea, belching, heartburn. Another disturbing sign is the loss of appetite, and quickly and sharply. After that, a person begins to shrink weight. Intestinal dyspepsia is accompanied by a yarn in the abdomen, meteorism, diarrhea or constipation.

The violation of the food digestion process in the intestines may indicate such pathology as divergeoz, diverticulitis, enzymopathy, enteritis, colitis, tumors in the intestine, irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatic disease, metabolic pathology. The intestinal dyspepsia may indicate that it develops infection (dysentery, cholera, bowel tuberculosis, salmonellosis, etc.).

Allocate 2 main groups of dyspeptic disorders - functional dyspepsia and organic. In the first case, only violations of the body of the body are found, that is, functional lesions, and in the second they are exclusively organic. In the latter case, symptoms will be more pronounced, while disorders continue for a long time.

Causes of occurrence

Several forms allocate depending on the reasons that cause the development of the syndrome:

  • Simple dyspepsia. It is also called an alimentary. Caused by food problems. In turn, there is a fat (soapy), a fermentation and putrid dyspepsia. In the latter case, it develops if protein products predominate in food or non-freight meat is used. The fermentation develops from excessive consumption of carbohydrates (bread, cabbage, legumes, sugar) and beverages causing fermentation (beer and kvass). Fat dyspepsia is developing with the unlimited consumption of fatty food, it is especially true of pork and lamb;
  • Dyspepsia associated with a shortage of enzymes secreted for digesting food in the intestine and stomach. In turn, it happens to be a gastrogen (lack of enzymes in the stomach), pancreatogenic (deficit of the substances of the pancreas), enterogenic (lack of intestinal juices), hepatogenic (insufficient selection of bile from the liver);
  • Dyspepsia, which is associated with the problems of food suction in the intestine in Malabsorption syndrome. As a result, the nutrient components do not come from the bowel into the blood;
  • Dyspepsia, which is associated with intestinal infections. In this case, it can be both dysentery and salmonellosis.
  • Inxication. It is manifested due to poisoning under different diseases, including flu, surgical pathologies in acute form, as well as when using poisons.

All of these factors can contribute to the occurrence of the disease. Symptoms and treatment of dyspepsia of the stomach and intestines are directly dependent on the cause.

Risk factors

These include:

  • Frequent and strong stress, emotional tension. In this case, pathology will have neurotic genesis;
  • Some use of medicines. This applies to antibiotics, hormonal or antitumor and other means;
  • Incorrect meals Most often it concerns overeating;
  • intoxication. In this case, there may be both a disease of viral or bacterial origin and domestic poisoning;
  • excessive excretion of hydrochloric acid;
  • Problems with motorcycle gastrointestinal tract.

These are the main factors that contribute to the emergence of dyspepsia.


Gastric dyspepsia occurs in case of such diseases such as esophagitis, GERB, cancer, stenosis or ulcer of esophagus, cancer, or presence of benign tumors, peripesophagitis, sclerodermia, diverticulous. Also, the presence of dyspepsia of the stomach and intestines may indicate diseases of the muscles, the central and peripheral nervous system, the pathology of the internal organs, for example, the narrowing of the esophagus can be caused by cysts and tumors that oppress it from the outside. It also concerns the aortic aneurysm, vascular anomalies, thyroid hyperplasia.

Complications of dyspepsia are most often associated with the main ailment, which causes the appearance of this syndrome. The patient can lose weight dramatically, lose appetite for a long time. One of the difficult consequences is Mallory Weis's Syndrome. In this case, the mucous layers of the lower part of the esophagus are breaking, where it goes into the stomach. Because of this, gastric bleeding begins. It can be fairly intense and even lead to a fatal outcome. Most often, the occurrence of Mallory Weisse syndrome is associated with multiple bits of vomiting.

When should you consult a doctor

For the treatment of dyspepsia of the stomach or intestines, you need to contact the gastroenterologist. Do not tighten with a campaign to the doctor. Special attention should be paid to such symptoms as abdominal pain at night, sharp rapid slimming, nausea, vomiting, frequent belching, bouts of heartburn. Diagnostics can be carried out at JSC "Medicine" (Clinic Academician of the Roytberg), which is located in the center of Moscow.

Preparation for visiting a doctor

To visit the gastroenterologist, special training is required. Do not tighten with a visit to the doctor, if there are problems with the digestive system. It is necessary to remember all the symptoms that have recently arose, and then tell their doctor. It is also recommended to take an empty stomach, as it is possible that you will be sent to pass materials for analyzes, to pass surveys.

Diagnosis of dyspepsia

Before starting the treatment of dyspepsia, it is necessary to undergo a survey, which includes not only the description of the complaints, external inspection, but also the following:

  • Laboratory studies are a common and biochemical blood test, the study of the feces for blood, a coprogram;
  • Instrumental studies - an acid discharge test with stomach, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a study of gastric materials for the presence of chielicobacter pylori, ultrasound of the abdominal organs, colonoscopy, radiography, computed tomography, esophageal and anthroduodenal pressure gauge.

You can go through the diagnosis in JSC "Medicine" (Clinic Academician of the Roytberg), which is located in the Central District of Moscow, not far from the metro station Tverskaya, Novoslobodskaya, Belarus, Chekhovskaya. If there is a disease, you may need not only consultation of the gastroenterologist, but also other specialists: psychiatrist, neuropathologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist.


Medical therapy is necessary for the treatment of dyspepsia. Separately, it is necessary to get rid of diarrhea or constipation, and for this purpose, special means are prescribed. Other drugs are also prescribed for the treatment of dyspepsia and facilitating the patient's condition:

  • anesthetic (antispasmodics);
  • means that reduce the level of acidity in the stomach;
  • Enzymes to improve digestion processes.

Treatment should be comprehensive and systemic. It is necessary to carry out the therapy of the disease, which caused dyspepsia, that is, gastritis, duodenitis, GERD, cholecystitis, ulcer of the stomach or intestines, the alaugh of the pancreas.

Home Treatments

When dyspepsysia, the doctor's recommendation must be observed. It is necessary to sleep on a high pillow, walking at least an hour after each meal. It is forbidden to delay the belt, do exercises for the muscles of the press. Be sure to eat correctly. We will have to abandon products causing heartburn. It is not allowed to overeat.

Myths and dangerous misconceptions in the treatment of dyspepsia

Basic delusion:

  • Nausea, heaviness and bloating will be held independently. They are temporary, so you can not go to the hospital;
  • Antispasmodics or enzymers remove the severity in the stomach, unpleasant sensations in the intestine;
  • If you use sour or sharp, then discomfort will disappear.

All listed opinions are fundamentally incorrect. Do not rely on the myths, in which they used to believe. When alarming symptoms appear, you must contact a specialist.


It is necessary to switch to rational food, abandon the harmful and non-baking products, smoking. Be sure to comply with the norms of hygiene, lead a healthy lifestyle. Moderate physical exertion is allowed. It is necessary to regularly undergo planned inspections from the doctor, to treat any diseases in a timely manner.

How to sign up for a gastroenterologist

You can sign up for the specialists of the JSC "Medicine" (clinic of Academician of the Roytberg) by calling +7 (495) 775-73-60 (around the clock) or using the feedback form on the site. The address of the clinic: the 2nd Tver-Yamsk lane. ten.

DISPERSIONS: Classification, symptoms and causes of occurrence

Dyspepsia is called a violation of the digestive tract caused by a whole complex of reasons. This is one of the most common gastroenterological disorders: according to statistics, approximately 30-40% of the population of European countries and up to 60% of some African states suffer from dyspepsia. [one] .

Organic and functional dyspepsia: What is it?

In a wide sense, the term "dyspepsia" is a set of certain symptoms of digestive disorders, including pain and a sense of discomfort in the field of epigastria (top of the abdomen), heartburn and belching, meteorism, sensation of gravity after meals, nausea, and sometimes even vomiting.

In medicine, two forms of dyspepsia are distinguished - organic and functional.

Functional dyspepsia

According to the Roman criteria for the diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders II, the functional dyspepsia is defined as pain and discomfort in the epigastrics, which arose due to disorders of the duodenum and the stomach, not caused by their organic pathologies. In addition, with functional dyspepsia, there is a lack of communication between the violation of the function of the tract and discomfort and pain.

It is interesting The risk group of functional dyspepsia includes people who have enough young age - from 20 to 40 years. In the elderly patients, the functional dyspepsia is diagnosed much less often, since they usually have other gastrointestinal diseases, which cause clinical manifestations.

For clinical manifestations, functional dyspepsia can be divided into three groups:

  1. Discinetic functional dyspepsia, The main symptoms of which are a feeling of discomfort without pain, early saturation and feeling of crowded stomach.
  2. Yazve-like functional dyspepsia, Characterized by strong pains in epigastrics, often caused by a feeling of hunger. Pain may be intensified under the influence of neuropsychiatric factors.
  3. Nonspecific functional dyspepsia, The characteristic of the presence of mixed symptoms is nausea, meteorism, heartburn and belching.

Often the patient has a combination of several types of functional dyspepsia at once, as well as manifestations of irritable intestinal syndrome and stomach reflux disease. The prognosis for functional dyspepsia is adversely because the disease is "persistence" of symptoms that significantly reduce the quality of life of the patient.

Organic dyspepsia

Usually connected with any disease, the consequence of which it is. With this form, the symptoms are always pronounced clearly and clearly. Organic dyspepsia is classified on the basis of the reasons provoking its development in a patient:

  1. Disps associated with digestion disorders:
    • Gastrogen Dyspepsia is caused by an insufficient amount of gastric enzymes. It develops as a consequence of digestion disorder in violation of the stomach function, mainly under the Achilia - the absence of pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the desired concentration in the gastric juice. Food at this stage is digested in a lack of extent, and the food lump is injured by the sheath of the small intestine.
    • Pancreatogenic Dyspepsia develops as a result of insufficient exhalation of the pancreas. Due to the shortage of food enzymes in the small intestine, it is digested and absorbed not completely, causing the corresponding symptoms.
    • Enterogenic Dyspepsia is due to problems with the small intestine, the disease of which worsen the digestion and absorption of most nutrients contained in food.
    • The main reason Hepatogenic Dyspepsia are disorders of bile production. The lack of bile participating in the digestion of fats also leads to dyspepsia.
  2. Alimentary dyspepsia associated with errors in nutrition:
    • Brodyl Dyspepsia usually appears in those patients who are in large quantities in food products with a high content of carbohydrates. These include bread, pastries, peas, beans, cabbage and some drinks prepared by fermentation (beer, kvass). As a result, the relative or absolute insufficiency of amylolytic enzymes (amylases) occurs, due to which the process of digesting carbohydrates is disturbed. In a large number, fermentation products are formed in a large number, which, in turn, enhances the intestinal motor function.
    • Gulil Dyspepsia can develop as a result of the use of stupid meat or due to excess in the diet of products with a high protein content. It also occurs in intestinal hypersecretion or in case of lack of proteolytic enzymes (proteases) responsible for protein cleavage. Due to rotting in the intestine, the products of incomplete decay of proteins are formed, capable of provoking the disease.
    • Fatty , or soap, dyspepsia usually occurs in the presence of an excessive amount of oily food in a human diet or with a shortage of enzymes that split fats - lipases. Especially often, soap dyspepsia occurs in people who constantly use fatty meat - lamb or pork.
  3. Enzymatic dyspepsia. Dyspepsia caused by Malabsorption syndrome, congenital disease, in which the digestion of food and suction of nutrients is broken by the small intestine. As a result, diarrhea occurs, steatheree (excess fat content in nuts), abdominal pain and other symptoms of dyspepsia.
  4. Infectious dyspepsia May appear against the background of some diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. It often occurs in dysentery, salmonellosis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, at the initial stage of botulism or viral hepatitis.
  5. Inxication dyspepsia Usually arises against the background of poisoning to poisonous substances or with the development of some pathologies that are not associated with the tract, for example, with infections, purulent infections.

On a note Symptoms of any of the forms of dyspepsia are able to reduce the quality of life of the patient, but, according to statistics, about 25% of potential patients appeals to the doctor with complaints about this disease. [2] .

Possible symptoms and causes of dyspepsia

Dyspepsia is usually characterized by certain pronounced symptoms, therefore, on the primary reception, the doctor can put an accurate diagnosis. The main features of dyspepsia include:

  • Short-term pain in the upper stomach departments, occur periodically and not related to meals;
  • nausea, which can also appear at any time - and after eating, and on an empty stomach;
  • The feeling of gravity in the stomach, localized in the epigastria (in its upper part);
  • constant expressed heartburn;
  • feeling of overflow in the epigastric region, even when receiving a small amount of food;
  • belching;
  • Meteorism (accumulation of gases in the intestine).

Vomiting is not a characteristic symptom of dyspepsia, but in some cases it can appear, temporarily facilitating the condition of the patient.

As factors, the emergence of dyspepsia, experts usually allocate the following:

  • Disrupting the diet, especially the predominance of products in it with any native substance. For example, the use of only meat food rich in proteins is quite capable of being discussed. The same applies to carbohydrate or fatty foods.
  • Excessive use of alcohol, smoking.
  • Violation of motility: the rhythm of the peristaltics, the motor function of the anthral stomach or anthroduodenal coordination (relaxation of the gastric gatekeeper during synchronous reduction of the anthral department), also responsible for transporting food from the stomach in the intestine; Accommodation (bottom relaxation) stomach after meals.
  • Increased sensitivity of the stomach walls to stretching.
  • Reception of some drugs - hormones, antibiotics, gland and potassium preparations, NSAIDs.
  • Frequent stress, depression, emotional tension.

In addition, the cause of dyspepsia, as already mentioned, there may be a number of diseases:

  • Food allergy;
  • gastritis characterized by both elevated and reduced acidity;
  • inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis);
  • cholelithiasis;
  • ulceal duodenal or stomach disease;
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease, in which the gastric contents with a high concentration of hydrochloric acid is thrown into the esophagus, leading it to irritation and causing dyspepsia;
  • intestinal obstruction;
  • benign tumors of the gastrointestinal tract organs;
  • malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal bodies;
  • inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis);
  • diabetes;
  • viral hepatitis A;
  • Reducing the acidity of gastric juice (ahlorohydria);
  • Conditions after removing the gallbladder.

Sometimes dyspepsia is also caused by ischemic heart disease, chronic liver diseases, connective tissue and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland.

So, dyspepsia, although it is not a direct threat to the life of the diseased, is able to break her habitual course and cause a lot of trouble. In addition to eliminating the underlying disease, experts recommend to help the body fully digest food. A course of enzyme therapy can be appointed using special drugs.


Dyspepsia - This is a disruption of digestion due to the causes of organic and functional nature. The symptoms are pains in the upper part of the belly of unclear localization, nausea, heartburn, a sense of overcrowding of the stomach, fast saturation after meal and others. The diagnosis is established only in case of excluding another pathology of the gastrointestinal examination, the fundamental importance of the upper digestive tract has an endoscopic examination. Treatment is symptomatic: enzyme preparations, means for improving the motorcycle gastrointestinal motorcycle, etc. It is of great importance to psychotherapy - after classes with a psychologist, most patients note a decrease in the intensity of complaints.


Dyspepsia is one of the main problems of modern gastroenterology, since uncertain complaints about digestive discomfort places up to 40% of the population of developed countries, while only every fifth addresses to doctors. Digestion disorders may have an organic or functional basis.

Organic dyspepsia arises against the background of various pathology of the digestive organs (gastritis, ulcerative disease, inflammatory diseases of the hepatobiliary system, pancreas and different intestinal departments, digestion tumors, etc.). The functional dyspepsia is said in the case when, in the presence of symptoms of the violation of the stomach, no organic pathology is detected, which could call these complaints. Women suffer from a functional dyspexia 1.5 times more often than men; The main age contingent, which detects this disease, make up the face 17-35 years.



Causes of dyspepsia

The pathology is assumed to be a psychosocial disease, in which the regulation of the functions of the stomach and the initial departments of the intestine is disturbed as a result of various stress factors. In addition to emotional overvoltage, the causes of the development of functional dyspepsia may be dysfunction, the reception of some drugs, increase the secretion of hydrochloric acid, helicobacter seamation of the gastric mucosa, dyskinesia of the initial departments of the digestive tract, disruption of digestion of complex sugars and others. It is known that hypovitaminosis (vitamin deficiency And group B) can also contribute to the development of dyspepsia.

As a result of the impact of the listed factors on the wall of the stomach, the sensitivity of visceral receptors increases, the discoordination of the motility of the stomach and the small intestine occurs, the normal secretion of digestive juices is disturbed. Manifestations of these disorders are gastroparesis (accompanied by weight in epigastria, nausea and vomiting), increased visceral susceptibility susceptibility (feeling of the overflow of the stomach, hungry pain in the opposite region), incomplete relaxation of the muscular layer of the organ (the feeling of early saturation), slowing the promotion of dietary masses from the stomach in the intestines.

Diseases such as food allergies, gastroesophageal reflux disease, a diaphragmal hernia with a displacement of the abdominal esophagus in a chest cavity, gastritis, ahlorohydry, ulcerative disease, cholecystitis, state after cholecistectomy, pancreatitis, pylororostenosis, pylorostenosis , Tumors of the GCT, various infections of the digestive tract.

The most common cause of dyspepsia in children are nutritional toxicinosis, in which case, to the fore, along with dyspeptic, the toxicosis syndrome is released. Since the signs of organic dyspepsia are discussed in sections on the relevant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, this article will be part of the functional dyspepsia.


As a result of the impact of the listed factors on the wall of the stomach, the sensitivity of visceral receptors increases, the discoordination of the motility of the stomach and the small intestine occurs, the normal secretion of digestive juices is disturbed. Manifestations of these disorders are gastroparesis (accompanied by weight in epigastria, nausea and vomiting), increased visceral susceptibility susceptibility (feeling of the overflow of the stomach, hungry pain in the opposite region), incomplete relaxation of the muscular layer of the organ (the feeling of early saturation), slowing the promotion of dietary masses from the stomach in the intestines.

Dyspepsia classification

Based on the pathogenetic principle, the functional and organic dyspepsia distinguish. Organic pathology accompanies various diseases of the digestive tract, and the functional proceeds against the background of the absence of organic lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. For the causal factor, the following dispersion options are allocated:

  • Alimentary - Usually associated with a violation of the ratio of the main nutrients in the diet. The fermentation dyspepsia develops when the carbohydrates is predominant in the carbohydrate menu, shredder - proteins and stupid meat, soap - when re-fulfilled by refractory fats.
  • Enzymatic - associated with insufficient formulation of digestive enzymes. Depending on which enzyme failure developed in which the organ, the gastrogen, pancreatogenic, hepatogenic and enterogenic dyspepsia is distinguished.
  • Dyspepssentials in Mal Absorption Syndrome - associated with impaired nutritional suction in the intestine.
  • Infectious - develops with different intestinal infections, most often in dysentery and salmonelles.
  • Inxication - arises with acute poisoning, heavy common infections, extensive injuries.

There are also four clinical forms of functional dyspepsia: Yazve-like, dyskinetic, reflux-like and uncertain.

Symptoms of dyspepsia

The diagnosis of functional disorder is established in the presence of three mandatory criteria. The first one is the complaints of pain and discomfort in the upper half of the abdomen on the middle line for one week monthly, or 12 weeks a year. The second is the lack of organic changes in the gastrointestinal tract in physical, endoscopic and ultrasound examination of the upper digestive tract. The third criterion is the lack of signs of irritable bowel syndrome (relief of symptoms after defecation or changing the character and frequency of the chair).

There are a number of features, in the presence of which the diagnosis is excluded: it is dysphagia, an increase in body temperature, the appearance of blood in a chair, inflammatory changes in clinical analyzes, anonymous weight loss, anemia. If there are listed symptoms, a deeper examination of the patient is required for the formulation of the right diagnosis.

There are four options for the flow of functional dyspepsia, each of which has its clinical and physical signs. A yazwned-like version is manifested by sufficiently strong night or hungry pain in the epigastric region, often arising after emotional overvoltage. The pain syndrome is borne by meals, introducing antacids. A characteristic feature is a sense of fear during an attack, obsessive thoughts about the presence of an incurable disease.

The diskinetic option is expressed by a feeling of overcrowding the stomach after eating, heaviness in the epigastria, nausea, bloating. Possible vomiting, bringing relief. Patients note that after eating rapid saturation occurs. Reflux-like dyspepsia is manifested by heartburn, a feeling of burning pain behind the sternum, belching and joking the acid. The last form of the disease is uncertain, or non-specific - characterized by polymorphism of symptoms, while allocating one presenter is not possible. For functional dyspepsia, a long time is characterized by no progression of symptoms.


The consultation of the gastroenterologist will allow to identify the leading complaints, decide on the necessary amount of research. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia is established only after a complete examination of the patient and the exclusion of other pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. The following studies are required: Consultation of an endoscopist doctor for eviopagogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound of the abdominal bodies, blood tests (generally increasing and biochemical blood tests), Cala's research to assess digestive activities, detecting hidden blood.

With functional dyspepsia during EGDS changes in the mucosa are not visualized. In the ultrasound of the abdominal organs, chronic pancreatitis, gall-eyed disease can be detected. Deviations in analyzes with this diagnosis usually does not happen. For differential diagnosis with other gastrointestinal diseases, additional research may be required. With the radiography of the stomach, the expansion of the body cavity can be detected, slowing the evacuation of food. On the electroasterography, a violation of the stomach peristals is recorded (most often the gentle of its rhythm).

To determine the acidity, a study of gastric juice is carried out, intragastric pH-metry (possibly both an increase and lowering pH). To assess the degree of relaxation of the stomach, an anthrododenal pressure gauge is used, during which a special sensor transmitting pressure indicators is introduced into the organ cavity. With functional dyspepsia, the manometry may indicate insufficient relaxation or, on the contrary, relaxation of the stomach walls.

In a situation where symptoms are progressing, or not enough against the background of treatment, two different studies are required to detect Helicobacter infection. The use of methods with different diagnostic mechanisms (determination of the Helicobacter in feces using the ELISA, PCR diagnostics Helicobacter, determining the blood of antibodies to the Helicobacter method of the ELISA, the respiratory test for Helicobacter) will avoid the error.

Repeated consultation of the gastroenterologist After receiving the results of all studies, it makes it possible to eliminate organic pathology, to determine the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia and assign proper treatment. It is known that the organic reasons for disorders are found in 40% of patients with characteristic complaints for this disease, so the diagnostic search primarily should be aimed at identifying these diseases. Functional dyspepsia should be differentiated with irritable intestinal syndrome, functional vomiting, aerophage.

Treatment of dyspepsia

The main objectives that the doctor pursues when appointing the treatment of functional pathology is to reduce the intensity of symptoms, prevention of recurrence of the disease. Hospitalization in the department of gastroenterology is usually shown only for complicated research, with difficulties of differential diagnosis. The main directions of therapy of functional dyspepsia are: correction of lifestyle and nutrition, drug and psychotherapeutic measures.

To normalize the day mode, situations that provoke stresses and experiences, physical and emotional overload should be eliminated. It is recommended to refuse to eat alcohol, smoking. It is necessary to allocate time for daily physical culture activities - they improve both the patient's overall condition and the function of digestive organs. It is also necessary to pay great attention to the power regimen. From the diet, fried, extractive and acute food, carbonated drinks, coffee are excluded.

It is necessary for small portions, carefully chew food, prevent overeating and long interruptions between meals. After eating, you need to actively move, do not lie to rest. If there are signs of dyspepsia, it is recommended to refuse to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory funds, as they adversely affect the state of the stomach mucosa. These activities are leading in the treatment of functional dyspepsia.

If the patient is not able to independently normalize the power mode, it may be necessary to help the nutritionist. The specialist will explain the need to comply with the frequency and volume of each meal, harming overeating and long breaks in nutrition. A nutritionist will also control the qualitative composition of food - the presence of sufficient protein and vitamins, dietary fiber.

The cure from the functional dyspepsia is impossible without a deep psycho-emotional restructuring. For this, it is necessary not only to reduce the number of stresses to a minimum, but also change the patient's attitude to negative situations. This may contribute to sports, water treatments, yoga classes. The attending physician must support trusting relationships with a patient, explain in detail the causes and mechanisms for the development of the disease - only in this case it is possible to obtain the desired effect on treatment. Greater productivity of therapy can be achieved when prescribing sedative preparations (Valerian, dyeing grass), antidepressants (fluvoxamine, fluoxetine).

Medicase treatment is prescribed depending on the form of dyspepsia. With a jewelry-like version, the main group of drugs - antacids and antisecretory agents: aluminum hydroxide in combination with magnesium hydroxide, proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers and others. With diskinetic form of dyspepsia, preoxes are used: domperidone or metoclopramide. The remaining options for functional dyspepsia suggest the use of various combinations of antacids and prokinetics.

If the symptoms of dyspepsia are not regressed against the background of the treatment, other drugs from these groups should be used, or change the combination of drugs. It is also recommended to conduct a study on h.pylori (if it has not been done), with a positive result - to carry out the eradication of microorganism with antibacterial agents. Antichelicobacter therapy in 25% of cases significantly facilitates the course of dyspepsia.

We should not forget about the alarming symptoms that may appear in a patient with dyspepsia: dysphagia, bleeding from various sections of the gastrointestinal tract, unmotivated weight loss. If the patient places the following complaints, it is necessary to repeat endoscopic and other studies for the timely detection of hazardous pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (cancer of the stomach, cancer of the small intestine, etc.).

Prediction and prevention

Functional dyspepsia worsens the course of the patient's life, but the prognosis of this disease is favorable. In the absence of alarming symptoms listed above, the presence of a serious tract pathology is unlikely. However, for dyspepsia, a wave-like flow is characterized, so after the course of therapy, the high probability of recurrence of symptoms is preserved. Specific dispersion prevention measures are not developed, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition and the elimination of stressful situations significantly reduce the likelihood of developing this disease.


Information from this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic studies should appoint only the attending physician. To make a diagnosis and proper appointment of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.

DISPERSIONS: Causes of appearance, in which diseases there are, diagnosis and methods of treatment. Definition Under the term dyspepsia understand the complex of disorders pointing to the violation of the normal activity of the stomach and accompanied by various symptoms that are preserved for 3 months in a row. Dyspepsia is manifested by painful sensations or sense of gravity (overflow) at the top of the abdomen. Such discomfort may not be associated with meals, accompanied by nausea, bloating, heartburn, belching. Dyspepsia can be a symptom of various functional and organic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and in its occurrence it is necessary to consult a specialist. Varieties of dyspepsia
  • There are many types of dyspepsia.
    • Alimentary dyspepsia is the result of continuous non-compliance with the rules of food intake and unbalanced nutrition. Alimentary dyspepsia has three subtypes:
    • The fermentation subtype - caused by excessive consumption of simple carbohydrates (sugars, flour products, fruits, legumes, etc.), fermented vegetables and fermentation drinks (kvass, beer), as a result of which the intestinal microbiota balance is shifted towards the ferrous flora;
    • Pinged subtype - caused by excessable protein food (meat products and semi-finished products that require a lot of time to digest);
  • The fatty subtype - caused by excessive consumption of products saturated with refractory fats (porks, lamb, etc.).
Dyspepsia in disruption of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract (accelerated or slow-down food evacuation from the gastrointestinal tract). Causes of Dispsia

Dyspepsia is the result of a variety of pathological mechanisms. The emergence of a complex of symptoms characteristic of dyspepsia is due to a quarter of cases by a slowdown in the gastric emptying. In this case, vomiting also joins pain, the feeling of gravity is joined and a significant decrease in appetite.

Part of the patients has increased sensitivity of the gastric mucosa and duodenum to stretch the food masses, which causes a spasm of smooth muscles and painful sensations.

Approximately a third of cases there is a violation of the regulation of cutting the muscles of the stomach with a nervous system, as a result of which spasms occur, which cause pain during the reduction of the stomach.

Transferred infections in a light form, sluggish inflammatory lesions of the stomach and duodenum lead to the development of functional changes in the operation of the digestive system. Various genetic factors predict to the development of such dyspessions.

Among the diseases that are accompanied by the symptoms of dyspepsia, chronic gastritis and gastroduodenite should be highlighted.

These diseases are often found in adolescent and young age, when there are not enough time to properly and, importantly, regular food. There is a breakdown of mucus, which protects the mucous membrane of the stomach from mechanical and chemical effects (especially from hydrochloric acid, which is part of the gastric juice). Dyspepsia is a constant satellite of the ulcer of the stomach and duodenal. Symptoms of ulcers are very diverse and depend on its location in the wall of the organ. Vasilyev Yu.V. Functional dyspepsia. Modern ideas about the problem and capabilities of therapy. Medical Council, magazine. No. 6. 2013. P. 94-98.Pains may be after meals or, on the contrary, "hungry pains". Other symptoms of dyspepsia with ulcerative disease - belching, nausea or even vomiting after meals.

In recent years, the medical community is becoming increasingly important in the development of symptoms of dyspepsia gives infection

Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori)

. The damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach occurs when the vital activity of this bacterium increases and disrupts the balance between protective and affecting. Bacterium is very resistant to acidic content of the stomach and is able to significantly damage the mucous membrane, up to the development of ulcerative defects. If instead of a special course of eradication therapy (for the destruction of this bacterium), only symptomatic treatment is carried out, then in the autumn-spring period there are exacerbations of gastroduodenitis and gastric ulcer.

Lyalyukova E.A., Drozdov V.N., Kareva E.N., Silver S.Yu., Starodubtsev A.K., Kigova D.O. Dyspepsia Uncomfortable: Differential diagnosis, patient maintaining tactics on an outpatient stage. Attending physician, magazine. № 8, 2018. P. 15-19.Along with the infectious causes of the development of dyspepsia, psychosocial factors of the appearance of unpleasant symptoms are distinguished. Stresses, depressive and disturbing states lead to a violation of the regulation of the right rhythm and adequate amount of secretion of gastric content.

The extraction of hydrochloric acid increases and the mucous membrane of the stomach is damaged.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERB) is one of the frequent causes of the appearance of symptoms of dyspepsia. Patients feel a feeling of burning in the bottom of the chest, especially after meals and when the slope is down, in the lying position.
  • Paints arise due to the cast of sour and aggressive gastric content in the esophagus, while the mucosa of the esophagus suffers.
  • In some cases, the symptoms of dyspepsia can talk about the development of some diseases of the heart. One of the most frequent causes of pain is an abdominal form of myocardial infarction.
  • Classical symptoms of dyspepsia can be joined by reduced blood pressure.
  • Symptoms arise due to the special location of the heart attack - on the bottom surface of the heart, right above the diaphragm and the stomach.
  • The long and uncontrolled reception of some drugs (for example, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) leads to a violation of the balance of factors for the protection of the stomach and aggression factors. Acid damages unprotected mucousness to form erosions and ulcers.
  • Pre-providing factors for the development of symptoms of dyspepsia and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract:
  • Nutrition of the power mode (big breaks between meals);
  • Nutrition "on the run", dry;
abuse of spicy, acidic, sharp, fried products; very hot or very cold food; Smoking and alcohol abuse (especially strong spirits), coffee; diabetes;
  • kidney disease;
Burns, massive injuries and other causes of pronounced pain.

What do doctors contact?

The emergence of symptoms of dyspepsia requires an appeal to a therapeutic profile doctor: therapist or pediatrician. After the inspection, the doctor will appoint a set of instrumental and laboratory research and will send if necessary for a narrow specialist. Consultation of the gastroenterologist, surgeon, cardiologist may be required.

Diagnosis and examination when symptoms of dyspepsia

Treatment of dyspepsia

During the survey, it is possible to use both laboratory and instrumental research methods.

Clinical blood test;

What to do during dyspepsia? A temporary solution to the problem is the use of antacid drugs when pain in the stomach area appears. But it should not be abused by this group of drugs, because With prolonged use, another mechanism forces the occurrence of unpleasant sensations is formed: due to the reaction with hydrochloric acid accumulates a large amount of carbon dioxide in the stomach, which leads to the appearance of a feeling of stomach overflow and belching. In the occurrence of pain immediately after eating it is not necessary to take painkillers, they will not have a proper effect.

With frequent episodes of discomfort and pain in the area of ​​the stomach, you must contact a specialist for examination and selection of treatment.

A temporary solution to the problem is the use of antacid drugs when pain in the stomach area appears. But it should not be abused by this group of drugs, because With prolonged use, another mechanism forces the occurrence of unpleasant sensations is formed: due to the reaction with hydrochloric acid accumulates a large amount of carbon dioxide in the stomach, which leads to the appearance of a feeling of stomach overflow and belching.

At the heart of the treatment of any disease of the gastrointestinal tract lies compliance with the diet.

It is important to take care of the stomach from chemical, thermal and mechanical impact. This means that the food should not be very acute and spicy, it should be warm, but not hot and desirable without crusts and other sharp and hard elements. It is preferable to cook for a pair or cook. Roasted and smoked dishes are undesirable. The entire day diet is divided into 5-6 receptions. In a diet for people suffering from the diseases of the stomach, soups, fish and non-bubble varieties of meat, bird, dairy products, with the exception of sharp and salty cheeses are welcome. Bread is better to eat a little dried. It should be abandoned from coffee, carbonated drinks, salted and sharp sauces, onions, cabbage and mushrooms - all these products are irritated by the inflamed wall of the stomach and enhance damage. The gentle mode also includes a refusal of smoking and alcohol intake.

As the drug treatment of gastritis and ulcerative diseases of the stomach, special eradication patterns of therapy aimed at destruction are used as the medication

H. pylori.
  1. and restoring the balance of factors of aggression and protection of the gastric mucosa.
  2. These treatment regimens appoint a doctor when confirming availability


Information from this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic studies should appoint only the attending physician. To make a diagnosis and proper appointment of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.

With the help of instrumental and laboratory research methods. In some cases, surgical treatment of stomach ulcer disease is required.

For the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease there are two treatment options. The conservative method includes a lifestyle correction (a decrease in body weight, rejection of snacks, reducing the number of slopes, eating no later than 2 hours before sleep), the use of drugs suppressing the secretion of hydrochloric acid (mainly proton pump inhibitors) , prokinetics, normalizing the motor function of the stomach, and some other means. Sometimes surgical antirefluux correction of this state is required.

The emergence of symptoms of dyspepsia when taking medicines requires access to the attending physician to correct therapy and the prevention of side effects.

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