Each company / firm requires planning and budget accounting, otherwise there can be a speech on successful work.
But for some reason, in his life, few people are guided by the same principles. Units are planning, taking into account, marching a family budget.
In this note, I just want to share my experience - how to organize everything and what are the nuances.
Why do you need to keep and planning a family budget?
Consider simple examples:
- the salary has not yet given - no money
- I want to buy something - no money
- The refrigerator broke - there is no money
- sick teeth and you need to go to a private clinic - there is no money again
I think these situations are familiar to many. Just in order to avoid them and you need to plan a family budget.
It is important to understand the following:
- At any time some event may occur which will require additional spending, but in your pocket may not be the right amount.
- Many of the events that happen in our lives are cycled. Or have a predicted date of the offensive, respectively, it is worth planning and postpone money.
- No need to think that you have to deprive yourself, infringe on. Just on the contrary, it turns out a kind of insurance against such unforeseen situations.
- Without a clear plan Why and why this is done will not be able to get the result.
Step number 1 - Decide what kind of sources of income
First of all, answer the following questions:
- What income They are constant, and what periodic?
- What percentage Among the general revenue souma make up each individual source?
- Which source income will not disappear without your participation?
Main source of income in the family
Most is the salary.
Although it can be delayed, but still easily predicted, constantly paid. On its basis it is necessary to plan.
Additional sources of income
Interest on deposits, non-permanent earnings, etc.
With percentage of the deposit, everything is also clear, they are stable, even more than a salary, but as a rule, make up a smaller part of the budget than the salary.
For instance to receive at least 20 000 rubles per month , at a rate of 10% per annum you need to be the amount of order on the account 2 400 000 rubles !!! Not everyone has this amount.
By the way, get 10% per annum easy and without deposits, with the help of debit cards.
pros - Money can always be removed without loss of interest, the interest rate is often higher than in deposits of many banks. I myself use a debit card by Tinky Bank , Read my review .
Better not to take into account because We are not permanent, not projected.
For instance . Tax deduction Most receive several years. Plan your expenses based on the receipt once a year, some amount, but sooner or later it will end and then it is necessary to cut spending.
In this case, it is better to send money to create a airbag or early repayment of the mortgage.
For this link detailed instructions How to fill out a declaration of 3 ndfl and get a property deduction.
In the future, develop those sources of income that bring money on a machine or with the lowest labor costs.
Step number 2 - how to distribute the family budget
First of all, we take permanent revenues and take 5-10% from them - how much is more comfortable.
This is done to create a reserve for a black day. So that in the case of unforeseen spending money was where to take.
If there is not enough discipline Self postpone money, then use goals in Sberbank-online (as an example, other banks also have a similar tool).
Arguments against laying money (error)
- no money remains at all , there is nothing to postpone, I live from salary to salary
- Shipping the amount is too small, it will not be sense
- Inflation all devour
Arguments for postponing money (reality)
- Tomorrow will grow payments on the commune by 5%. What will you do? Will there be money or stop paying?
- Suddenly the tooth sick and urgently need treatment And in stocks there are not even some 2-3 thousand rubles. Trifle? Yes. But sometimes, such a little thing can be very useful.
- What is better than 0 rubles or 5000 rubles in your pocket? I think the answer is obvious, even if after a couple of years these 5,000 and become less than worth it, but they will also be better than nothing.
We divide all costs for category
- Mandatory spending, which cannot be reduced (mortgage payments, communal, training fee, etc.)
- Mandatory spending that can be reduced (meals, car, etc.)
- Not obligatory expenses from which you can refuse without much damage (hike in the gym, some entertainment, etc.)
We receive groups of expenses broken through priorities. If the costs of the third group can be completely skipped, from the second - to reduce, then with the first group to do something difficult.
Respectively , distribute the family budget for the month on the basis of the priorities obtained:
- first allocate money for the first group
- Then onto the second
- If something remains, then we allocate the third.
So you can distribute the family budget for a month.
Income - 20 000 rubles.
Decoration 5% for a black day is 1,000 rubles.
Remaining 19 000 rubles Delim in categories.
Let the communal will be 4,000 rubles, 6,000 rubles. Nutrition, 1,500 rubles goes to clothing, 1,500 rubles for travel, 2,000 rubles for health, 1,000 rubles for rest, 1,000 rubles per household. Goods, and another 2,000 rubles distribute themselves.
It will also be useful to read the article. - How to live on a small salary?
But that is not all.
Distribute money little, you need to still control how they are spent. This will eventually save a family budget.
3 councils how easier to control costs:
- Make an exile file With all income and expenses and to fill it daily (a selection of programs and services for the family budget).
- After a certain amount of money is allocated for each category ,need to divide them for 4 weeks . At a shorter time interval, it is easier to keep track when the category budget approaches the designated border and cut the costs not to climb out.
- Write down Best of all every day and do not count on your memory.
"Why write every day expenses, if they have already been distributed, where and how much will we spend? And I remember! ".
Example from personal experience
Although the costs of the same type, but it happens that I will go and begin to remember at the end of the week, how much and where I spent. As a result, in the category " Not taken into account "(I wonder those expenses that I can not remember where I spent not inaccuracies) you have to record up to 20% of the allocated budget of other categories.
20% is a significant discrepancy
And one more thing, leading the fourth year accounting of expenses, so I know how much and when I spent money. This information is very useful if you want to save money, because It becomes accurately visible where you can reduce costs or predict spending.
Step number 3 - Family budget table with expenses for a month
It is convenient to take intervals a week, month and year. Weekly and monthly intervals allow you to control current costs, and the annual interval allows you to take into account the non-permanent costs (holidays, birthdays, vacation, etc.).
2 principles for adding cost categories:
- There are expenses for which we want to track - we allocate in a separate category
- We want to get detailed information - Delive categories on the subcategory
Below a detailed cost table.
|Food ||Data for categories If you wish, you should smash even more detailed (vegetables, meat, drinks, etc.) - this will allow you to evaluate which products need to be reduced in the diet, and which it would be better to add.|
|Payments ||I think everything is clear here. Now it is easy to say exactly how much the cost of certain services has grown.|
|Car ||This category is made separately, since it is an essential part. This kind of recording will be shown exactly how much the content of the car is cost, and you can Frequency about .|
|Purchases ||It should not include large categories such as a car.|
|Hose Products||All trifles: light bulbs, hooks, clothespins, etc.|
|Hygiene||Soap, shampoos, washcloths, etc. should be made here.|
|Health ||A large category for which is also worth watching more carefully.|
|Gifts||Located on the category: names of people, holiday titles.|
|Hobby||I think everything is clear too.|
|Vacation ||Made separately, since this is also a fairly volumetric cost category that is useful to track. For example, last year you went to China, recorded all expenses. If this year decide to repeat the trip, then you will have some kind of landmark.|
|Repairs ||It is also quite useful to record spending so that in the future it was easier to plan this kind of work. That's how much it cost me In one-room apartment with draft trim. Even a few years later, it will not be difficult to recalculate everything.|
|Training||Also, if necessary, split into subparagraphs.|
|Debts||This makes data when we take any money.|
|Not taken into account||At times, it becomes too lazy to conduct daily accounting of expenses, so the gaps that need to be written off somewhere are inevitable. You can use such a solution.|
Table with expenses composed. If there is no category, add.
Step number 4 - Create a financial airbag
Once again, make your attention at these moments.
Financial airbag - If there is no money about the supply, then you can get into a difficult situation - this is a risk.
Therefore, the first thing 5-10% of the salary should be sent to the creation of stock which will live without any sources of income. The reserve for a couple of months will allow to survive dismissal, the reserve for half a year will allow to survive the prolonged disease.
Step No. 5 - How to save a family budget
Check out the pair of articles dedicated to saving money:
If you are not lazy. Every day I spent 5 minutes of your time and recorded all expenses, then in about 3-4 months you can say exactly what to save.
I'll say right away - some expenses may surprise you. Rather their size.
For example, see how much you spend on food and which one. I think it will immediately become clear on what and how you can save a family budget.
The most convenient application for monitoring the family budget. Each user is assigned a separate icon named. All of them are combined into a common category - for example, "family". Revenues, spending, accounts and reports can also be viewed in a common category, and for each user separately. It is so easy to check who in the family spends most and earns.
Tracts and revenues are placed in different categories and subcategories. You can record the budget and plan spending by category. Reports are shown in the form of a color chart.
In the application you can add spending and income in any currency. Finance movement is formed in convenient reports for any period. Expenses are divided into categories, and statistics are displayed on the phone screen.
We prepared this material with Yumoney - popular in RuNet service electronic payments.
Let's start with the accounting
Before making a budget plan, you need to collect your income and expenses into a bunch. That's what you should consider first of all:
- permanent income (salary, rent, pension, benefits, alimony, etc.);
- permanent (mandatory) costs (communal, rent, loans, vital medicines, etc.);
- One-time or periodic income (fees, sale of things and services, premiums, money gifts, etc.).
Fix these amounts and go to the next step - analysis of expenses per month. At this stage you need to look at the history of spending on the map or in the consolidated cost of spending in the online bank. From there you must reach approximate monthly amounts in the following articles:
- food (shops, food delivery, cafes and restaurants);
- transport (public, taxi or personal car);
- Beauty and health (beauty salons, gyms, medical service);
- payments for the apartment (rent, communal);
- loans (mortgage and other);
- Subscriptions (on music, cinema, courses, media, etc.).
Think well: what else do you spend money regularly? Coffee to go? Cleaning service? Add these articles to your statistics.
The result of accounting - Understanding of accurate or exemplary income and expenses per month by category. The main thing is to collect all the tattles, especially non-obvious, spending. It is necessary to make every member of your family.
We systematize it
When you understand what the amount of income and expenses per month personally, you and home, you can create a table of spending and earnings.
Option number 1. Budget for a month. The most understandable option that can be exactly different from and before receiving the salary.
- mandatory costs;
- accumulations for the month;
- daily spending;
- Self (difference between income and expenses).
Option number 2. Budget for a year. A large detailed plan in which it will turn out to take into account all the nuances for 12 months. It will take time, but will give you the overall picture of the family budget and will help accumulate to large goals.
- Revenues (are divided into advance, salary, selling, cachek, tax deduction, gifts and debts);
- expenses (accumulation by category, mortgage, loans, communal, food, payment for children's sections and education, other spending);
- car (gasoline, repair, insurance, taxes, fines);
- Family (beauty, health, clothes, recreation, holidays, vacation).
Option number 3. Budget for a week. A good way to teach financial literacy even a child. A small table is made up every seven days and takes into account absolutely all spending that occur during the day - even chewing and chocolates. On a short distance, the weekly plan will help to figure out, and what money goes at all during the day.
- residues (cash, on map, deposits and accounts);
- daily costs and receipts;
- Funds (homework, health, products, sports and anything)
- Incoming and outgoing balance (entrance balances and obligations).
Will not forget about the accumulation
Accumulations - this is necessary! How and where you will do them - depends only on your financial savings and needs. Contribution, account or cash This will be - no matter, in any case, these schemes will be useful to you.
The general rule: to postpone at the beginning of the month, and not at the end, every month.
- Delay 10-20% of income.
- Use the rule "50-30-20". 50% - for mandatory spending, 30% - on less necessary purchases and 20% - on savings and unforeseen expenses.
- Scoop using the "Plus 10" method. The meaning is to start postpone from some kind of satisfaction - for example, with 100 rubles - and to increase it for 10 rubles daily. It will look like this: 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, and so on. You can choose a step of another size: plus 50 or plus 100, the main thing is to be comfortable.
And a few more tips:
- Mobile application allows you to control income, adjust the costs, plan a budget, accumulate to a specific goal.
- Discussing the upcoming serious traits with the whole family. Perhaps there will be arguments to abandon them or ways to reduce the price.
- For each major spending, create a separate account. Having been taking the same, you will understand that the purchase is postponed.
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Why control the family budget?
The problem of lack of money is relevant for most modern families. Many literally dream of paying with debts and start a new financial life. In the conditions of crisis, the burden of little salary, loans and debts, affects almost all families without exception. That is why people seek to control their expenses. The essence of saving costs is not that people are greedy, but to gain financial stability and look at their budget soberly and impartially.
The benefit of monitoring the financial flow is obvious - this is a decrease in costs. The more you saved, the more confidence in the future. Saving money can be used to form a financial pillow, which will allow you for a while feel comfortable, for example, if you stay without work.
The main enemy on the path of financial control is too lazy. People first light up the idea to control the family budget, and then they quickly cool and lose interest in their finances. To avoid a similar effect, you need to get a new habitual - control your expenses constantly. The most difficult period is the first month. Then the control is in the habit, and you continue to act automatically. In addition, the fruits of their "works" you will see immediately - your expenses will be aging in an amazing way. You personally make sure that some spending were superfluous and from them without harm to the family you can refuse.
Survey: Excel Tables are enough to control the family budget?
Accounting for expenses and income of the family in the Excel table
If you are a novice in the preparation of the family budget, then before using powerful and paid home accounting tools, try your family budget in a simple Excel table. The benefits of such a decision is obvious - you do not spend money on the program, and try your strength in finance control. On the other hand, if you bought a program, it will stimulate you - once spent money, then you need to keep records.
Starting the formation of a family budget better in a simple table in which you all clearly. Over time, you can complicate and supplement it.See also: Home Accounting Programs In this review, we present the results of testing five programs for maintaining home accounting. All these programs operate on the basis of Windows. Each application was installed on a computer and tested for several parameters.
The main principle of the compilation of the financial plan is to divide the costs and income into different categories and keep records of each of these categories. As experience shows, you need to start with a small number of categories (10-15 will be enough). Here is an exemplary list of categories of expenses for the preparation of the family budget:
- Household needs
- Bad habits
- Hygiene and Health
- Credit / debts
- Clothing and cosmetics
- Trips (transport, taxi)
- Entertainment and gifts
- Communication (telephone, Internet)
Consider the costs and revenues of the family budget on the example of this table.
Here we see three sections: income, expenses and report. In the "Expenditures" section, we introduced the above categories. Around each category is a cell containing total consumption per month (the sum of all days to the right). In the field of the days of the month, daily spending are introduced. In fact, this is a complete report for the month of the expenses of your family budget. This table gives the following information: expenses for every day, for every week, for the month, as well as the final costs for each category.
As for the formulas that are used in this table, they are very simple. For example, the total consumption of the category "car" is calculated by the formula = Sums (F14: AJ14) . That is, this is the amount of all days on the line number 14. The amount of expenses per day is calculated as follows: = Amounts (F14: F25) - All the numbers in the F C column f C 14th to the 25th line are summed up.
Similarly, the section "Revenues". This table has budget revenue categories and the amount that corresponds to it. In the "Total" cell, the sum of all categories ( = Amounts (E5: E8) ) In the column e with the 5th to the 8th line. The "Report" section is still easier. Here is duplicated information from cells E9 and F28. Saldo (minus flow rate) is the difference between these cells.
Now let's complicate our spending table. We introduce new columns "Flow plan" and "deviation" (download the cost table of spending and income). It is necessary for more accurate planning of the family budget. For example, you know that the cost of the car usually make up 5,000 rubles / month, and the rent is 3000 rubles / month. If we are known in advance costs, then we can make a budget for a month or even for a year.
Knowing your monthly expenses and income, you can plan large purchases. For example, family revenues 70 000 rubles / month, and costs 50 000 rubles / month. So, every month you can postpone 20,000 rubles. And in a year you will be the owner of a large amount - 240,000 rubles.
Thus, the columns "Flow plan" and "deviation" are needed for long-term budget planning. If the value in the "Deviation" column is negative (highlighted in red), then you deviated from the plan. Deviation is calculated by the formula = F14-E14 (that is, the difference between the plan and actual expenses by category).
How to be if in some month you deviated from the plan? If the deviation is minor, next next month you need to be saved on this category. For example, in our table in the category "Clothing and cosmetics" there is a deviation on -3950 rubles. So, next month, it is advisable to spend 2050 rubles for this group of goods (6000 minus 3950). Then, on average, in two months you will not have deviations from the plan: (2050 + 9950) / 2 = 12000/2 = 6000.
Using our data from the cost table, we will construct a chart reporting report.
Similarly, we build a report on the revenues of the family budget.
The benefits of these reports are obvious. First, we get a visual idea of the budget, and secondly, you can trace the share of each category as a percentage. In our case, the most costly articles are "Clothing and cosmetics" (19%), "food" (15%) and "Credit" (15%).
The Excel program has ready-made templates that allow you to create the desired tables in two clicks. If you go to the "File" menu and select the "Create" item, the program will prompt you to create a ready-made project based on existing templates. Our topic includes the following templates: "Typical family budget", "Family budget (monthly)", "simple cost budget", "Personal budget", "Crescent home budget", "Student budget for a month", "Personal Expenditure Calculator" .
A selection of free Excel templates for budgeting
You can download Ready-made Excel Tables by these links:
The first two tables are discussed in this article. The third table is described in detail in the article about home accounting. The fourth selection is an archive containing standard templates from the Excel table processor.
Try downloading and work with each table. Having considered all the templates, you will surely find a table that is suitable for your family budget.
Excel Tables against Home Accounting Program: What to choose?
Each method of keeping home accounting has its advantages and disadvantages. If you never led home accounting and weakly own a computer, it is better to start accounting of finance with the help of an ordinary notebook. Make all expenses and income into it in arbitrary form, and at the end of the month take the calculator and reduce the debit with the loan.
If the level of your knowledge allows you to use an Excel table processor or a similar program, then boldly download home budget table templates and start accounting in electronic form.
When the functionality of the tables is no longer suitable, you can use specialized programs. Start from the simplest software for personal accounting, and only then, when you get real experience, you can purchase a full-fledged program for PC or for a smartphone. More detailed information on finance accounting programs can be viewed in the following articles:
The advantages of using Excel tables are obvious. This is a simple, understandable and free solution. It is also possible to get additional skills to work with a tabular processor. By minuses include low performance, weak visuality, as well as limited functionality.
Specialized family budget programs have only one minus - almost all normal software is paid. This is relevant only one question - what is the highest quality program and cheap? Pros of programs are such: high speed, visual presentation of data, many reports, technical support from the developer, free update.
If you want to try your strength in the field of family budget planning, but at the same time not ready to pay money, then download free table templates and proceed to business. If you already have experience in the field of home accounting, and you want to use more advanced tools, we recommend installing a simple and inexpensive program called the housekeeper. Consider the fundamentals of personal accounting with the help of "housekeeping".
Maintenance of home accounting in the "Economy" program
A detailed description of the program can be viewed on this page. The "housekeeping" functionality is simple: there are two main sections: income and expenses.
To add consumption, you need to click the "Add" button (located at the top of the left). Then you should select the user, the flow category and enter the amount. For example, in our case, the operative operation was performed by the user Oleg, the cost category: "Family and Children", subcategory: "Toys", and the amount is equal to 1500 rubles. Funds will be written off from the Cash account.
Similarly, the section "Revenues". Users accounts are configured in the "Users" section. You can add any number of accounts in different currency. For example, one account may be ruble, second dollar, the third in euro, etc. The principle of operation of the program is simple - when you add a consuming operation, then the money is written off from the selected account, and when the revenue, the money on the contrary is credited to the account.
To build a report, you need to select a report type in the "Reports" section, specify the time interval (if necessary) and click the "Build" button.
As you can see, everything is simple! The program will independently build reports and indicate you for the most costly items of expenses. Using reports and spending table, you can more effectively manage your family budget.
Video on the family budget in Excel
On the Internet, there are many videos devoted to the issues of the family budget. The main thing is that you not only watched, read and listened, but in practice they used the knowledge gained. Controlling your budget, you reduce extra costs and increase accumulation.
This text wrote a reader T-zh. If you also want to think about something out loud and open your discussion, fill out this form.
In 2018, I started the budget.
Made a table for family budget
All spending at that time were disorderly, and it was difficult to follow the course of money. The sign was helped to bring order in finance.
Where all all began
I am 26. I work the content manager in the online store and get about 45 thousand rubles, depending on the turnover.
While he studied at the university, the money sent their parents. I tried to stretch them to once again not ask to send it yet. After studying, the girl and I decided to make an apartment on our own, so I got a job on the first job - a storekeeper in the electronics store. I received 30 thousand rubles, but this was enough for meals and payment of the room in the apartment, which we divided with friends.
At some point, problems began with the apartment: the owner sold it without our knowledge. We learned about this when documents came to the post in the name of the new owner. We were allowed to live some kind Time, but asked not to relax strongly. At that moment I realized that it was time to postpone money for moving.
Then we did not particularly follow the spending and they were not fixed in any way. I kept everything in mind and, if necessary, was crying with the bank's application. I decided to make a table so that everything was visual and for money could watch not only me, but my girl. Now we continue to keep budget, because it is convenient, and we are accustomed.
Why do you need a table and how to use it right
The table had one function - to bring financial order and structuring everything. I wanted to understand what money goes, where it would save, and in what cases you can relax and spend more familiar. After that, we began to go to the movies more often and order anything Delicious delivery. It helped to stay afloat and rejoice in what is happening.
So that everything worked, you need to regularly fill out the arrival and care. No matter what you use, the main thing is to follow the mode. Table we lead along with your wife: I will give spending in my cards, she is in his own. Usually fill it, as soon as we come home. To make costs, on average you need to spend 5 minutes: the formulas are so customized that you do not have to consider much yourself. If a something It does not converge, then in search of the problem can go and hour.
Due to the circumstances or laziness, it is not always possible to make expenses on time, even if the phone is with the table at hand. In such cases, it is necessary to spend time on the weekend to reduce the results on the table and the map. If I managed to observe the principle of regularity, it would help to avoid confusion and time loss.
If it is impossible to find an error in the calculations, you can use the "great equalizer" - a special tool that is in the tables. To add the missing amount, you need to write a number with a minus to get down - with a plus. A small crutch helps lead everything neatly and without unnecessary signs.
What changes I introduced to the table
I chose an old-fashioned table, and not ready-made applications for a computer or smartphone, because they are not very different from what I did. Increases and expenses still have to handle, and I have been set up with minimal automation through the formula. Moreover, many of the functions can be inserted with one button, for this you do not need additional knowledge. If you are ready to spend time on finalizing the table and analysis, you may have a flexible system with individual settings.
Initially, the table was three cost graphs - "Plan", "Fact" and "Balance". In the first column, we recorded how much money you can spend, in the second - how much really happened, and in the third I fixed the difference between the first two points, to then adjust the amount by category.
Adaptation categories spending. The first thing I did when I started the formation of the table, - allocated a group of spending on which the most money went. It is useful for some time to post down the flow of your finance without making any changes to the table. If you hold out a couple of months without serious improvements, you will get to collect an individual database around which your budget can be built.
After a month of use of the table, I had a temptation to start rearranged categories, complicate it with formulas and get rid of useless items. I think if I started doing it, my wife would throw attempts to understand what was happening and stopped using the table. It is better to start with simple, get used to and after a few months to come up with how to fix the flaws and the inconvenience of one or another approach.
At first I tried to take into account all the costs that came to mind. Gradually, I dropped a few points, such as "games", because personal funds are spent on it and it makes no sense to record them in a table with a family budget. Points "One-time spending", "household waste" and "pharmacy" united in one, as it is very rare purchases. We highlight money on them every two months or just take from the piggy bank if necessary if the purchase is unexpected.
New approach to cash flow. The "Plan / Fact" system did not show himself very well and was not visual enough, so I decided to change the approach to the payment of spending. All salary, cachekki, part-time and help from parents I began to record in a separate Mini-table: To use this money, first need to be painted in cells. The allocated amount is automatically deducted from the available tools and is reserved. All the same can be seen how much money on the map, only the amount of funds left to distribute.
Now, having received a conditional 20 thousand rubles, we declare them in categories as in boxes: 10 thousand per apartment, 5 thousand on food, 2 thousand per transportation, the remaining 3 thousand we scatter on the payment of the phone and other minor costs.
Limits by category. Everyone allocates a certain amount from the money received. At the same time, there is a limit, above which should not be found, as well as categories showing how much they spent and how much it remains. This money is on the map, but they cannot be touched, otherwise the system will not work. As a contribution to the bank: I put money - and it is possible to get it only after the expiration. Only in our case the term is the purchase of goods from the selected category.
Previously, we simply fixed a certain amount for a day, from which the money was randomly taken. Now this does not happen: if one category goes beyond the limit of the limit, we take a loan from another. What left in minus has to close, deduct this amount from the salary.
I calculated the limits so that we have free money that you can postpone into a piggy bank or to pay for the apartment next month, but so that we are not hungry and sad.
We often can go beyond the limit on fast food: We love to pamper yourself a harmful meal. But when we see that they have exceeded the restriction, stop, realizing that we can no longer spend 1,5 thousand more than one more order. Otherwise, they will not be enough in another category.
It turned out to be more convenient than every day to keep the specific amount in the hands: there is no more temptation to make a thorough purchase. When you see the residue in a red rectangle next to spent, then a little soothing the inner shopaholic.
Sometimes it is sad for how free money disappear and become inaccessible, but if you drop out sadness, then this method helps to save well. For example, for 5 months we managed to collect 180 thousand rubles to pay the wedding. Previously, it turned out to accumulate a maximum of 80 thousand. Not sure that we would have succeeded, if there were no visual card with all the spending and the normal distribution by category. On something I would definitely not have enough.
Detailing spending. In the last update, I added the detailed spending. In fact, the supplement was not the most useful, but it helped to collect some more information for the analysis: when and how much we spend, what is the average check, at what days of the week we buy food, we pay for the subscription and how often we eat out at home.
It turned out that I collect information, but how to use it - I haven't come up yet. Maybe thanks to this data, in the future it will turn out to make a table more flexible and less strict.
To work the table, you need to stick to simple rules:
- Do not be lazy regularly register. The discipline on this issue will help more than a visual table.
- Change the spending approach to create a working table. Read other materials on the topic of the budget and try to supplement your system with other people's work.
- Expose spent limits and try to observe them. You will be surprised how easy it is to reduce costs for useless things.
Hope my approach will be useful to someone. You can download a copy of the table by reference: You will get an empty form with already prescribed formulas.
In this article, we will try to analyze how to save, save and multiply funds even at low income.
Family is a miniature state: it has a chapter, adviser, "subsidized population", income and expenses. How to plan, distribute and save a family budget?
Financiers advise to make a table of accounting for funds entering the family and revise the structure of payments.
"Too many people spend money on things that they do not need to impress the people who do not like it." Will Rogers, the legendary American actor starting the 20th century.
Why need to lead a family budget
"Money is just a tool. They will lead to where you want, but will not replace you as a driver, "said Ayn Rand, the writer of Russian origin, emigrated to the States. She learned his experience to plan and budgeting their own finances.
Three good reasons to start planning a family budget:
- The budget calculation will help find out long-term goals and work in a given direction. If aimlessly drift, scattering money for every attractive item, how can you save and go to long-awaited vacation, buy a car or make the first contribution to the mortgage?
- The family budget expenditure table clarifies spontaneous costs and makes you revise the purchasing habits. Do you need these things in such quantity? Family budget planning helps to build priorities and reoriented to achieve their goals.
- Disease, divorce or loss of work can lead to a serious financial crisis. And emergency situations in life happen at the most inopportune moment. Therefore, everyone needs a reserve fund. The family budget structure should include the Count "Savings" - a financial pillow, which will help hold out afloat from 3 to 6 months.
How to distribute the family budget
Several practical rules for planning a family budget, which we give here can serve as an approximate guideline for decision-making. Situations are all different and constantly changing, but the basic principles will serve as a good starting point.
Elizabeth and Amelia Warren, the authors of the book "All Your Worth: The Ultimate Lifetime Money Plan" (Translated "All Your Welfare: The main monetary plan for life") describe a simple but effective way to budgeting.
- She advises to divide the structure of the budget for 3 main components:
- 50% of income should cover main costs, such as housing, taxes and purchase products;
- 30% - optional spending: entertainment, hike in cafe, movies, etc.;
20% go to pay loans and debts, as well as postponed as a reserve.
80 on 20 or passage rule - variation of the previous rule. 20% of all revenues in the family budget to pay for payments and the creation of a financial "pillow", 80% - everything else.
These empirical rules can also be adjusted, in line with your real situation. Just below, you will find an example of a family budget in a table that will serve as a basis for creating your own plan.
Rule 3 - 6 months
You must have an amount of sufficient family in your arms or deposit deposit for three to six months. In the case of dismissal, accident or illness, the "safety net" will keep you from the adoption of desperate decisions, will provide an opportunity to look back and find ways out of the circumstances.
How to make a family budget
- Planning the structure of expenses and income is not a complex and tedious occupation as you may have thought. There are free programs and applications to help you proceed to drawing up a plan and stick to it.
- A distinguished notebook and handle - the first thing that comes to mind when we conceive how to calculate the family budget.
- You can download the family budget table in Excel for free in the standard Microsoft templates and adapt it to your own needs.
Applications for smartphones - a good option Immediately make all payments in the program's memory immediately, you only need to select the appropriate utility to you. Coinkeeper - Convenient services for tracking and planning costs.
Before you - manual for steps: How to make a family budget for a month based on a template in a table that can be adapted to several clicks for yourself.
Step 1: Put the goals
- Savings for saving? Do not confuse the scarceration and planning of expenses. Put goals and learn to save on what no matter.
- The short-term goal can be a new electronic device or repayment of minor debts.
- In the medium term - buying a car, journey.
Long-term goals, as a rule, include retirement plans, mortgage pay and assistance to grown children.
Step 2: Determine the revenues and expenses of the family budget
When analyzing the family budget structure, it is better to start with the compilation of the list of all sources of income: salary, alimony, pensions, part-time and so on.
Divide spending on constant and variable payments. Fill in the variable and permanent costs in the table to keep a family budget based on your own experience.
In the budget distribution, it is necessary to take into account the size of the family, housing conditions and the desires of all members of the "society cells".
- Structure of income
- As a rule, in the income column gets:
- Salary of the head of the family (designated "Husband");
- Earnings of the chief adviser ("wife");
- interest on deposits;
part-time (private lessons, for example).
- Expenditures are divided into permanent, that is, unchanged: fixed tax payments; Housing insurance, car and health; Permanent amounts for the Internet and TV. These include those 10 - 20%, which must be postponed on unforeseen cases and "black day".
- Count variable costs:
- medical service;
- spending on the car;
- payment for gas, light, water;
- Personal spending of spouses (entered and planned separately);
- Seasonal spending on gifts;
- Contributions to school and kindergarten;
Costs for children.
Depending on your desire, you can add, specify the list or reduce it, constructing and combining the expenditure items.
Step 3: Tracks for a month
The table of the family budget is now unlikely to succeed, it is necessary to find out where money goes and in what proportions. It will take 1-2 months. The purpose of this step is to get a clear idea of your financial position, clearly see the cost structure and, in the next step, to adjust the budget.
Step 4: Separate desires
When people begin to record spending, they discover that a lot of money "flies" to unnecessary things. Pulse, unplanned costs are seriously hit by pocket, if the income level is not so great that the pair is another thousand undergo unnoticed.
Refuse to buy, if not sure that the thing is extremely necessary for you. Wait a few weeks. If it turns out that you really can't live without the desired object, it means that this is really the necessary spending.
And it is better to postpone credit and debit cards towards. Use cash to learn to save. Psychologically easier to part with virtual sums than to count paper.
Look at the categories of expenses that preferably cut, and make your own plan.
Many people do not like the word "budget" because they believe that these are restrictions, deprivation and lack of entertainment. But the individual expense plan will allow living within your funds, to avoid stress and sleep better, and not think about how to get out of debts.
Before moving on, make sure that the total number of balance is positive or equal to zero.
"Annual income of 20 pounds and an annual consumption of 19.06 lead to happiness. The income of 20 pounds and consumption of 20.6 lead to suffering, "this note of Charles Dickens discloses the basic law of planning.
Enter the finished family budget in the table
- You set goals, determined income and spending, decided how much it will become for emergency situations every month and found out the difference between needs and desires.
- The budget is not static, times and forever fixed numbers. If necessary, it can always be adjusted. For example, you planned to spend 15 thousand products on the products monthly, but after a couple of months they noticed that only 14 thousand are spent. Make additions to the table - the saved amount is sent to the "savings" column.
- How to plan a budget for irregular income
One strategy is to calculate the average income over the past few years and navigate this figure.
The second way is to determine a stable salary from your own income - what you will live, and excess the surplus to the insurance account. In the scarce months, the account balance will decrease exactly for the missing amount. But the "salary" will not change.
The third planning option is to lead two budget tables in parallel: for "good" and "bad" months. It is somewhat more complicated, but nothing is impossible. Danger that sets you on this path: people spend and take loans, waiting for income from the best months. If the "black strip" is slightly delayed, then the credit funnel will eat and current, and future income. District cooperative - Research Conference
"Family Budget and its planning"
Class 6 and class
MBOU "High School No. 4 named twice Hero
Soviet Union A.O. Shabalina "
"Family Budget and its planning"
Scientific Receiver: Teacher MBOU
"Middle School No. 4 named twice Hero
Voronkolnana Vasilyevna Onega, 2019
Table of contents
Introduction .......................................................................................................... ..master.
Chapter 1 1.1. Family budget ...................................................................................... .....
1.2. Budget family ......................................
.................................... ... p.5 1.3. Methods of planning a family budget .......................................... ..
1.4. Recreation of cost cuts .............................. .. ...... .... ...................... p.6-8
2.1 Results of questionnaire
..................................... .............................. p.8-9 2.2 Experiment .................................................................. ............................ pp .9.
2.3 Compilation Composition "Recreation Recreation" ............................... " Conclusion
List of references
Attachment 1. Questionnaire ............................................................................ p.11
Appendix2. Results of the survey in diagrams .......... .................. p.12-13
Annex3. Memo "Recreation of cost cuts" ...............................
"Budget is only enough to reduce it." Laurence Okman.
Family budget is one of the most important stores of each family. Often it is precisely the inability to conduct a family budget to play by the means that there is a family of quicing disappointment, offended and dissatisfaction. Where do money go? Why do sand through your fingers? And how others do not only be prestone money until the next salary, but also increase and accumulate? Relevance.
I consider it to be relevant, because most families do not know how to plan property, does not have a complete and reliable idea of the components of their own budget and, therefore, cannot transmit their children necessary for their families in the family economy. Purpose of the study:
Just a study, I want to identify all the sources of my family's income, money is spent on the kakiorevad, as which can be saved to get acquainted. I put the following
Determine what is familyBighter; 2.
to analyze the budget of myself, examine his structure, calculate family income and family expenses for the month; 3.
explore the literary sources in which various methods of cutting costs are found; four.
Find out, due to cutting expenses, you can increase accumulation in my family; five.
to make an experiment; 6.
make a selection of self-prolonged and public receptions and methods for planning family budget; 7.
conduct a survey (in 6 classes); 8.
Identify classmates spripes reduce costs. Object of study .
: family budget. Subject of study:
Planning family budget Research methods:
Table of contents
Analysis of information, survey, experiment. Hypothesis:
Accounting for money leads to more rational icy.
Translated from 11thRorman (Bougette), the budget is a wallet, bag, leather bag, bags money.
Family budget - one of the well-being of family life well-being. Each of us is familiar to the situation when we appeal to parents with a request to buy us one or another liked, and how often you are upset when parents refuse to us in our request because at the moment this purchase is not planned. In the present, the problem of family spending is not planned. The budget has become very relevant, because. It is also an integral part of the state budget. It is the basis of the well-being of the whole state and reflects the level of development in general.
Family budget is the yield of family expenses for a certain period of time (week, month or year).
Family revenues are etudenzing agents that family members receive from unauthorized persons or Irganizations.
- Family expenses are costs, costs for certain goals.
- Family budget planning helps to protect the existing tools and expected revenues.
- Family budget management:
- will help correctly calculate its financial capabilities for a month (year), so distribute funds so that they are enough before the next receipt of money;
will help to avoid getting into difficult situations with debts, will allow you to get rid of existing debts with the smallest financial losses; It will reveal unnecessary spending, it will help to optimize procurement and, thus, extends a significant part of the money;
It will help to start making accumulations and plan big purchases or rest without the need to receive a loan.
·My family budget.
·To plan the family budgetary, you need to calculate income and expenses. In my calculation, my family is 72,250 rubles per month.
Salary: Dad - 48,000 rubles, Mom - 22,000 rubles (rounded).
·Also, my family has a contribution to the bank by a rule of 30,000 rubles for 10% per annum (3,000 rubles per year, 250 rubles per month)
·Kesbek (approximately 2 000 rubles)
·Although it considered that the average costs per month account for approximately 52,670 rubles.
·Meals (up to 30% of all expenses - 19 000órules)
·Machine maintenance (up to 7 000 rubles)
·Entertainment (up to 3 000 rubles)
Caring for yourself - Clothing, Medicine, Salon, Gym, Hygiene products (up to 10 000 rubles)
Communal payments (7,670 rubles) Unplanned costs - gifts, help (up to 6 000 rubles)
The remaining amount is 19 580 rubles. But this does not mean that this money can be spent as you like. The definctness per month is postponed in the form of savings. Savings go to the rest of the exterior, to "unforeseen" expenses. The amount of expenses per month can extend the amount of income.
·Family budget methods.
·Method "7 envelopes"
·You may not have 7, and the broadcasts that need to give the appropriate names:
Travel and so on.
·After receiving the wage, the envelope, depending on his name, you need to invest the amount of money you are willing to spend on specific costs, such as clothes. After the month for a month, take money from the envelope, which were allocated to the name of the purchase of clothes. At the same time save checks and make records. Thanks to the investigation, you will be able to plan a family budget and even read the money.
·Pareto method (80/20)
·This is a fairly simple technique, which will tell you how to make a family budget, and help money. The main rule - after receiving the wages to immediately appear from the total amount of 20 percent. This money can be put on the account of WBANK or leave on the card. The remaining 80% can be spent on behavior, adhering to the main rules of savings:
buy only the most needed;
lead a book of expenses;
·Sometimes to deny yourself something.
·Method "Three Applications"
·It is similar to the Pareto method, but 80% of the remaining money should be divided into two parts, for example, by 30 and 50 percent. In this way, the means of spending funds will have this kind:
50% of money is spent on mandatory needs (payment light, water, gas and travel). 30% of money can be spent on your favorite things and campaigns to the inlet.
20% need to postpone.
1. Refuse branded products
Buying goods less promoted brands instead of well-known brands allows you to significantly save. Take the time to make the composition of the composition of expensive yogurt or milk for the body and compare it with the quotable of a non-splashing counterpart.
It also applies to medicines, so look at the Bowed Analogues of expensive drugs on the Internet or ask them directly in the pharmacy. A felting network of pharmacies first of all aims to loyalty buyers, and not the appearance of their wallets.
2. Use bank cards as close as possible.
Many have accustomed to pay for purchases using cards, because it is more hygienic, reliably, and no need to carry a wallet with you. But numerous studies show that the constant use of the banking cards is fraught with loss of control over their expenses. It is easier for a person to part with invisible figures than with real pieces.
3. Communication, Internet
Keep track of what functions and options are connected in the phone. I think about whether they need them. If not, then why pay them. Take the tariffs taking into account your needs, and not the wishes of the operator.
4. Buy only the necessary
Often buyers make purchases only because of the fact that Nodovar was an action. It is especially difficult to overcome the temptation of a personal discount sent by the seller immediately after receiving the salary. But it is worth remembering, that thatupon is not a reason for buying.
Take just what you really need, and just the case when you are ready for this. And coupons and discounts can be found on the forums of psychocalyzed sites. And do not forget about Kesbakh.
5. Lighten online stores
If you have not yet known the joy of remote purchases, we will continue to try to try such shopping. Of course, he has some odds. But the smaller price in comparison with ordinary shops is one of the obvious property. Many popular brands and less well-known trademarks are selling a collection with discounts up to 90%.
6. Try to solve simple problems yourself, non-ivualizing specialists
Purchase transport is only the beginning of a long journey for its further content. The time of the first breakdown is going on, and money for rest is sent to the Kasstervice Center. However, many malfunctions do not require the hands of a specialist.
7. Wholesale - a chance of significant savings
What you can buy a big party, purchase at points trading in bulk. This includes cereals, sugar, household chemicals. Do not commit the ton. There is enough monthly norm. Savings will be essential.
8. Unreasonable purchases
If you are not a shadow fashion, for which the institutional fashion, buy clothes and shoes for seasonal discounts. You can save 50% of the purchase cost or more.
9. save on utility services
Put the meters on gas, water. This will help materialize the expenses of the family budget to pay for utilities. Duty allowed that the average person does not spend that water rate, kids.
10. Turn off the electrical appliances
Without having no need to leave the electrical appliances included in the nanoch, when careing to work and otherwise absences. So it is possible to not pay for too much, and avoid the possibility of a short circuit.
The little thing very many do not like, but in vain. If it is postponed, then alluring a sharp money deficit can be used for everyday needs: bread, passage.
12. Loans - no!
Before you take a loan, think about it, and whether he needs him in his nodel. This is especially true for vacation loans, buying clothes and so on. The same economic situation in the country is unstable. There is always a risk that it will not be possible to have a credit.
13. Delay from each salary
From each received salary or other income, 10% deposit on the "black" day. 10% is just that amount that can be practically erased out of turnover. It is so much spent on the fact that it is not necessary for anyone from the family. If you stop and save, then your vacation loan will be needed.
14. Receive income from postpone
Piggy bank or "snack" do not hold at home. If there are too much at home, then the reason to spend always. Therefore, it is better to invest in a bank, securities, stock trading. This will help not only save, but to have a passive income.
15. Ready at home
There are still many ways to save, but we will stop by Naethih.
2.1 Results of the survey.
Having studied the information about the family budget, I was made by my posts on my parallel of the 6th grades on the topic "What we know about the budget." In the participation of 56 schoolchildren (Appendix 1).
I asked the first question: is there enough money in your family? As a result, 4 people answered 46 people., "No" - 10 people.
To the question: "What is a family budget?"
10 people answered - "Revenues",
6 people - "expenses",
·"Revenues and expenses" - 40 people.
·3 Question: "What are the biggest expenses in your family?"
·Meals - 19nshelovka.
·Rankplat -10 person.
Clothing - 9 people.
Treatment - 2chel.
Other - 16 Self.
The next question "in your family is planning a budget?" "Yes" answered 35 people, "No" - 21 people.
Also, I asked my parallels "answered your parents answered your material requests - no money?" 53 of 56 people answered yes
On the last question: "Do you know effective methods of the family budget?"
"Yes" answered 34 people, "no" - 22 people.
After analyzing all the questionnaires, I decided to show visual imaging in the diagram (Appendix 2).
Conclusion: Do not everyone know what a family budget is able to dispose of their income rationally, this confirms the relevance of this data.
In order to show that cash management leads to more rational use, we solve the experiment.
I wanted to update my phone, but for this request a "money is not yet", "and decided to learn from my parallels" Whether the wizards answered your material requests - no money? " 53 of 56 people answered yes.
..................................... .............................. p.8-9
Purely theoretically, money for the purchase is available, but everything is not tupping. I decided to continue the study and find out what expenses we can economize. I stopped buying not very useful food (500 rubles). Mom asleeping walk to manicure (2000 rubles). Pope - Do not buy ice cream (500 rubles). As a result, 3000 rubles comes out, and the phone that I wanted to cost $ 28,000 rubles. It is not difficult to calculate that this amount can be possible for 10 months. On this day I accumulated 15,000 rubles, I left 5 months, in my opinion, this is a good result.
Just a study, I want to identify all the sources of my family's income, money is spent on the kakiorevad, as which can be saved to get acquainted. 2.3 Suitment of the Memo "Recreation Recreation"
tasks: The result of this work is a simple recommendation and receptions that will be very useful. (Appendix 5)
Determine what is familyBighter; Studies of psychologists and sociologists show a person to control his finances directly dependent on whether this person had such experience in childhood, whether parents were examined to independently use money, did they discuss large purchases in the family. It is necessary to explain from children from children, how does the money come from They have and for what they need. From the study, I made a definite conclusions:
The most affordable way to improve welfare is to learnly control the costs, and most importantly - to understand which purchases are needed, and from any time to refuse (buying sweets or uncontrolled waste of money on the phone Iinternet), without losing anything.
To correctly control your budget, it is necessary to produce economic settlements daily, i.e. Calculate the amount of daily seasons and try to adhere to these calculations.
Do not save on everything in a row, because it is impossible to save on health, nutrition and education.
2.3 Compilation Composition "Recreation Recreation" ............................... "
Just a study, I want to identify all the sources of my family's income, money is spent on the kakiorevad, as which can be saved to get acquainted. Exploring the budget of my family, I learned a lot of interesting and new year myself. Previously, I did not think about what my family's income and how much money was low, what expenses are basic, as which can be saved. And I learned that there are special computer programs for masterbudes and all calculations better lead in such a program. It is much easier. I think that next time I will definitely use this program for my family leading. I was very interested in the project and look for the material, I chose the most interesting and accessible forces and techniques and presented them in your work. I am planning to share with classmates with your developments. I have a desire to continue this work, get acquainted with new techniques for saving costs, analyze and share knowledge with others. )
tasks: Thus, my initial hypothesis that cash maintenance leads to more rational use is confirmed. These knowledge will be very simplifying everyday life and use everyone.
Determine what is familyBighter; "How to accumulate on a bike and become a millionaire" (friendly with finance,
to analyze the budget of myself, examine his structure, calculate family income and family expenses for the month; Visa.
explore the literary sources in which various methods of cutting costs are found; http://economsovet.ru/doxody-i-rasxody-semejnogo-byudzheta.html
Find out, due to cutting expenses, you can increase accumulation in my family; https://www.kakprosto.ru/kak-854686-kak-vesti-semeynyy-byudzhet.
Just a study, I want to identify all the sources of my family's income, money is spent on the kakiorevad, as which can be saved to get acquainted. http://glavnyeotvety.ru/semeynyy-byudzhet-kitrosti-i-sekrety--ine/
https://iklife.ru/financial/semejnyj-byudzhet-ehto-chto-takoe-i-kak-vesti-pravilno.html Appendix 1. Profile
Enough liden in your family? a.
Enough liden in your family? Not
What is the Taxamental Budget? Revenues
Determine what is familyBighter; Costs
Enough liden in your family? Income and expenses
What is the Taxamental Budget? The most grasses in your family?
Food Expenses of Gaulle
to analyze the budget of myself, examine his structure, calculate family income and family expenses for the month; Treatment
Enough liden in your family? Other
explore the literary sources in which various methods of cutting costs are found; In your selection of budget?
https://iklife.ru/financial/semejnyj-byudzhet-ehto-chto-takoe-i-kak-vesti-pravilno.html Appendix 1. Profile
Enough liden in your family? a.
Find out, due to cutting expenses, you can increase accumulation in my family; Yes
Enough liden in your family? Other
Livashi was answered by their parents on your material requests - no money?
Do you know how to achieve effective management of the family budget?
Thank you for participation! At the beginning of the year, it is customary to build plans for the future. At each enterprise there are indicators that need if not fulfilling, then at least to strive for them. There are personal plans for each of us - someone in my head, someone on paper. Does many of whether the budget sign and how much can it help? Readers and experts told about this "AIF-South".
Costs for points
Oksana and Victor Maximov
For a long time they decided to keep records of the family budget, write down all income and expenses in the program: from mortgage payments to gasoline spending.
"Plan a year - no goals, but every month I bring the fact of money spent. There are various applications, programs, I use simple - Excel, "says Oksana. - Insert the data into the table. So, in income articles all sources: my salary, earnings of your husband. For example, in another family, it can be some dividends, revenue from rental of real estate and other. In the expense block, many articles: rent, products, kindergartens and children's education, fitness and health, gifts for loved ones, recreation and entertainment, clothing, spending on the car (gasoline, maintenance, insurance). The last item is actual money, that is, the residue on all the cards. Once a week I fill articles. As a result, income minus costs should be equal to the number of actual money. So everything came out. "
According to Oksana, the priority payment - Mortgage. All other items are adjusted to the remaining amount. At the end of the month, she looks at what point "not fit", which means that it tries to save. The largest costs of expenses are the payment on mortgage, products and gifts. But it all depends on the situation.
"For example, last month both children were sick," the woman continues. - Therefore, a lot has spent money for medicines, analyzes, doctors. While we did not have our own apartment, copied to the initial fee for the loan. Every month the money was postponed during the year. The scheme is: the apartment cost two million rubles. The initial contribution was 10% of this amount: it was necessary to score at least 200 thousand rubles. If two million divided for 12 months, it will turn out about 17 thousand. So now I do with all major purchases to which you need to prepare financially. "
NZ cuts out
- Mom of a ten-year-old daughter and son of seven years old. My husband has long been separated, he did not pay alimony. If it were not for the financial assistance of the grandmother-veteran of war, which died last year, Natalia and children would be very difficult. Of course, the woman was taken for any part-time. But this work was remote, the revenues brought small and not regular. And now I was waiting, it happened what I dreamed about. The ratio of income / costs for the first time in many years swung in the direction of profits. Now you can save without crossing any item from the list of alleged spending. Do not suffer, choosing what you need from the right one.
Decree in the definition of Natalia is not limited to time designated by law - three years. If there is no husband, nanny, grandmother, it is stretched to infinity. In its case - to the second class of the youngest son. The son and daughter will go to school independently, the good is next to the house. It untied Natalia Hands. Finally, a constant work with fixed salary appeared. Salary makes it possible to clearly plan a budget. Again, the children began to grow slower. New clothes buying less frequently and sales, especially after the New Year holidays, help out. Last year, an excellent jacket of his daughter, Natalia bought for only 300 rubles. The son of Doros before that he was waiting for him in the closet from last year. School uniform did not buy at all, reversed girlfriends whose children grew up. By the way, on the "Maman" forums on the Internet there is a permanent exchange of children's things.
"Half of the budget goes to food," shares Natalia Nyuances of the family economy. - These are not only products for home cooking, but also school meals, breakfasts with you. About 20% takes a communal. Thinking, I bought a subscription to the sports club. It seemed expensive, considered - to all the children's sections per month pay the same, but the club from home is close, you can walk on foot, and not pay for travel in public transport. Children's hobbies - another 20%. Here and machines / dragons that need to constantly buy, so that the collection is not worse than everyone in the classroom. And the equipment for different sports that they try. Important expenditure articles - small repair and replacement of lost things. For such cases, it is impossible to plan in advance, you need to have an inviolable stock - NZ. I started creating it a few years ago, and I have enough willpower to replenish it. The technique breaks, last year "flew" a gas column, in this - Iron and vacuum cleaner, children lose gloves, umbrellas, caps, once a briefcase with textbooks. NZ helps in emergency situations and this is the best motivation. "
The horizon of financial planning Natalia Ganina is a year and more. Already she is planning summer holidays. To help - the experience of past years.
"A ticket to Krasnaya Polyana or Turkey, purchased into a low season and in advance, it is much cheaper. You can cooperate with the same mom with a child. Pay for a big number, dividing the cost for two, cheaper than the single one, "she explains.
14-16% of Russians are planning a budget for a year. And also, faced with the problem of entering the right of inheritance after the death of Grandma, Natalia intends to write a will. She believes it will not just save children time, money and nerves, but also protect them, ensuring guarantees of economic security.
Anatoly Ivanovich Yakimenko
70 years old, his pension - 11 thousand rubles, widower, alone lives. It is planning to plan your budget, but without enthusiasm, "because it is useless." "The government promised that from the new year pensions will increase by one thousand," he says. - It turned out, by 7, 05% - that is, 775 rubles 50 kopecks. Such a lucavism is literally in everything. Real prices in stores do not coincide with the data, which are voiced on TV. They say: "Get ready, from the new year due to the introduction of VAT, goods will rise in price. But they already jumped in price. Bread bread, the usual factory "brick", from 24 rubles has risen in price to 30 and it happened in November. I do not plan anything other than the inevitable spending on the communal service. In the cold it is the lion's part of all spending. Very expensive gas. The heating of the house for November cost 6.5 thousand rubles. Plus another two thousand - electricity (I have an electric boiler), water, garbage removal. Plus cellular communication - 350 rubles, 500-700 rubles of cereals and sub-products for the dog. About a thousand rubles each month goes to medicines. " It is not difficult to calculate that "for life" the pensioner remains very little. In the summer it is easier, but it does not work. I bought a good TV in return for the burnt old - and the accumulation was exhausted. In the current circumstances, a man considers himself lucky. He has a daughter. I buy products at your own expense, it is preparing, trying to anatoly Ivanovich anything knows.
Yakimenko is not one such, most of the respondents
Pensioners confirmed their dependence on children and grandchildren. But to a greater extent - from a communal who grows and grows. Recall, from the first of January, the price for the "cube" of gas increased in the Krasnodar region to 6.33 rubles, and from the first of July, the communal in the Kuban will detect another 2.6%. Residents of the village, without exaggeration, her hostages. For example, in the village of Ilsk, which is located under Krasnodar, this year a 80-year-old pensioner died, which decided to refuse from blue fuel. Next to the house of her river, where she collected a dog, they topped the stove. Until recent days, worked in the garden. Growing tomatoes, cucumbers, greens, traded them in the market. Pension, plus income from trade, invests in the house, it is old and demanded permanent repairs. In addition, it was fully provided with a 58-year dependent, an alcoholic son. Woman planned to live up to one hundred years. Newless her son in his plans further did not look at one day. Dogging in two months a small inheritance, he is now breeding in the local market. Financially not counted
Recently, employees of the Higher School of Economics (HSE) conducted a study on the topic - "What we know about the financial literacy of Russians." They asked compatriots such questions: whether people know how to handle money, whether the state gives guarantees, and where - no. Study author
Professor HSE Olga Kuzina
, allocated five of our harmful and useful financial habits, explained why this is so. And told how some of the sustainable habits changed over the past ten years.
First, almost every second compatriot considers its financial literacy level unsatisfactory. Respondents answered the question "Do you think yourself financially competent person?", Exposing my points from 1 to 5, as in school, where 1 is a complete lack of knowledge, and five is an excellent understanding of the subject. 19% of respondents rated their knowledge per unit, and 27% - for a twice. Most - 41% of respondents - believes that it is understood in personal finances on the troika. "Goods" consider themselves 12%. And only 1% of respondents said they perfectly understand how to handle money. Over the past ten years, "Troekhniki" has become more noticeable. Ten years ago, 7% less Russians called their knowledge "satisfactory." And "units" and the "five" dropped 1%. "Dwellers" was 3% more. "GOODS" - 2% less. It follows from this that the financial literacy of the Russians has grown a little.
Secondly, not everyone knows which deposits protect the state. "In Russia, the state savings insurance system is working. People reimburse their losses in some cases. What exactly do these guarantees are applied? ", - Such a question researchers asked respondents. Almost a third of Russians (32%) knows that the state protects bank deposits. The Deposit Insurance Agency (DC) guarantees the return of deposits to 1.4 million rubles in the event that the Bank responds to a license. Most - 49% - said that they do not even know about what guarantees they give them. And 12% of respondents are confident that the state will help return money from any organization that accepts deposits.
Thirdly, only 12% of Russians said that they had written records of all incomes and expenses. 11% said that accounting is not conducted and unknown how much money came, and how much it was spent. Most (56%) responded that they did not write down, but they know how much money came, and how much it was spent. 17% reported that they write down, but not all income and expenses. Interestingly, ten years ago the most disciplined "state employees" - write down all spending and income - was twice as much (24%). More than half of them stopped the budget in the post-crisis 2009 (11%). And in this group, they did not return to a useful habit even in 2012, when entrepreneurs rejoiced the consumer boom: then spending the same 11% were recorded. At the same time, the researchers assumed that people do not write down how much they get and spend, because their income is not so great, they are quite capable of doing it in the mind. But the hypothesis was not confirmed.
If this explanation was correct, the author explains the author, families with high incomes would more often led the budget than low-income families. And there is no such dependence: in all groups, the proportion of those who lead written records are the same. Why is it going on? The researchers found out that people simply do not see the meaning of budget. They have no long-term financial strategies - they do not expect to accumulate to buy cottages, and for this you need to postpone the amount per month for five years. And the following dependence was found: families that calculate money for a long period, more often lead written records. "Households that are planning for 6-12 months, the likelihood of budget is almost twice as high as those who plan for a month. Those who expect the budget from the year to three years - 2.2 times. And if the planning horizon is 3.6 times for more than three years.
Fourthly, it turned out that people plan only until the next salary. "How far do you look when making decisions about how much money is to spend, and how much to postpone?", I asked the respondents. It turned out that only 14-16% of Russians are planning their finances for more than a year. The largest group - 27% of Russians - replied that it counts for a month and less. 21% of respondents said that their time horizon is one or three months. 12% think about money for half a year ago. 1% for more than ten years. 13% - found it difficult to answer.
And fifth, the researchers came to the conclusion that our people know how to live by means. According to Olga Kuzina, this is a paradox, but in the competence of "live by means", where Russians were compared with the inhabitants of other countries, it turned out that we have one of the highest points. The maximum value for this parameter means that after all spending the respondents remain money, they do not lend to buy food or give earlier debts. At the same time, they or no debts, or debts are not burdensome for the budget of the household. Russians, according to research conclusions, are able to count better than residents of the CIS countries, for example, Tajikistan and Armenia, or Latin American countries. Airbag
"To live alone in the financial sense - it is categorically unacceptable," says
Professor, Doctor of Economics Alexander Polidy
. - Every person should have its own financial plan. At the same time, regardless of the amount of income, each month you need to postpone the enon sum. At any time, as they say, the soul should have an amount equivalent to semi-annual expenses. For example, if a month, a person spends 20 thousand rubles, but on the savings there should be a minimum of 120 thousand rubles, as a margin of safety. This is part of the overall financial culture. If the sums are small: up to 200 thousand rubles, - the most acceptable option is to put into the bank for a deposit. A person in this case does not risk anything. On the contrary, it is his airbag that will protect from different surprises.
If we talk about the amounts more than 200 thousand rubles, you can consider the currency portfolio, i.e. The division of money for: deposit in rubles, translation into dollars and euros. People with great finances can choose investments that offer banks, with a horizon for at least three years. Among them, investment insurance of life, portfolios, but, emphasize, this is for money that is guaranteed not to be required for three years at least. Where to start postpone? Better if there is an electronic application. For example, a person receives a salary and translate some of the money to a special closed account. You can start from any amount: 10-20 percent of income. Each has its own plank and their own capabilities. Society today learns to plan your budget. As for semi-annual savings, while it is difficult to take root. It is possible to explain the fact that the percentage of low-income citizens is too high. However, not so much salary size is important here, how much motivation to accumulate a certain amount. "
"Many of us are accustomed to live, guided by the eternal" Avos! "," Says
Svetlana Kondratieva, Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Social Psychologist